Topic Code: -EDUC9605Topic: -Leading Knowledge Management For Organisational LearningAssignment 1: -Explaining Concepts—–(SECI)Submitted to: -Melinda ThambiSubmitted by:-Sabia BhullarStudent Id: -2173949Meaning of Knowledge ManagementKnowledge management is the integrative approach to create, share and managing the information and knowledge of an organisation to achieve the desirable objectives by using optimum use of knowledge.Types of Knowledge ManagementKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENTTACIT KNOWLEDGEEXPLICITKNOWLEDGEDATAINFORMATIONKNOWLEDGEEXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE: -Explicit knowledge is very simple to communicate and easy to store. It can be codified, verbalized and can be transferred easily to others. The explicit type knowledge can be expressed in the form of words and numbers to be measured out in form of data.
This type of knowledge is easy to access and easy to used by anyone in the organisation (Grant,1996; Hanson et al., 1999).TACIT KNOWLEDGE: -Polanyi first defined tacit knowledge in 1966. This type of knowledge is very hard to define and store as it is based on experience. It is invaluable source of knowledge and ambiguous in nature, moreover, it can sometimes lead to the overall development in an organisation.
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However, it is not easy communicable as explicit knowledge.SECI stands forSOCIALIZATIONEXTERNALIZATIONCOMBINATIONINTERNALIZATIONNONAKA & TAKEUCHI KM MODEL(SECI)Nonaka and Takeuchi SECI model States two-dimensional matrix including four elements of knowledge conversion named tacitand explicit. The SECI model is based on illustrative theory which is embedded in a dialectic epistemology of explicit knowledge and explicit knowledge. The SECI model states the transformation among tacit and explicit knowledge : tacit knowledge can be transformed into explicit knowledge and vice-versa.
The four modes of knowledge conversion are:-Socialization, Externalization, Combination, Internalizationwhich generates knowledge creation in an organisation by dynamic process.•SOCIALIZATION: -The foremost process of SECI model is socialization, which pivots the linking of tacit to tacit knowledge. This process is known as transforming new knowledge through experiences.
In an organization, tacit knowledge is shared among workers from the experiences through direct communication. In other words, it is the way of transforming tacit to tacit knowledge from one person to another .CONTD…….As an illustration: -When I worked as a teacher in a private school in Madhya Pradesh, I gained knowledge about the culture with my co-workers who are belonged to MP(Madhya Pradesh) and share my experience about Punjabi culture with them. As for Punjabi?s people living in Punjab, their culture is everything for them. But now it is affected by westernization to some extent.
Joint families are converted into single family. This was the new knowledge for them and me as well to get know about another culture, traditions and values. They read about the culture in Punjab in books but which is not properly accurate.•EXTERNALIZATION: -The second process of SECI model is externalization, which focuses on tacit to explicit linking or it is the process for making tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge.
In externalization process, new concepts are being formed due to knowledge creation(Nonaka, 1994). The Knowledge is devised in the format of manuals and documents so that it could be expand in the whole organisation and easily understood by others as well.CONTD…
….As an illustration: -As a teacher, I got a chance to arrange tour of batch of students from my class from MP to Punjab (My home state). They had no information about Punjab. Before Gone to Punjab, I made models, diagrams of famous places, pictures of Punjabi people wearing traditional dresses etc. Finally, they understood properly and knowledge was created for students.
When they visited there, they took photographs, made videos to capture everything about traditional and religious famous places.•COMBINATION: -The third step in SECI is combination which focuses on explicit to explicit knowledge linking and knowledge utilization. Particularly, combination is the process of transforming the knowledge into more usable form from explicit knowledge. It is the process of “systematizing concepts into a knowledge system” (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995). In this Phase, explicit knowledge is integrated by the process of collecting explicit knowledge either inside or outside of the organisation.
CONTD…….As an illustration: -I knew lot about culture of MP as I completed my graduation from one of the university of MP. I spent 3 years there for my study. I had some friends who belonged to MP then I got good knowledge from them. After completing my graduation, I got a chance to teach in one of the secondary school in MP. I deployed my knowledge there and get more new knowledge by experiencing some new things while teaching.•INTERNALIZATION:-The final process in this model is internalization, focuses on the linking towards explicit to tacit. It is closely related to “the traditional notion of learning” and “to learning by doing”(Nonaka, et.
al. 1994). It is the process of understanding and absorbing the explicit knowledge.
Knowledge is internalized and existing tacit knowledge is modified due to use of explicit sources.CONTD…….As an illustration: -In my organisation, there were some teachers from different states as well. We used to exchange the information about cultures, rituals, values of different states. By doing this, we got very useful knowledge to learn about various cultures.In my organisation, knowledge conversion in lesson study through SECI model Select topic for studyIdentify preliminary object of learningDetermine student’s learning difficultiesPlan research lessonImplement and perceive lessonINTERLAZITATIONReport resultEvaluate overall impact of studyEvaluate learning outcomesEXTERNALIZATIONSONOICIALIZATCOMBINATIONSTRENGTHS OF SECI MODEL•It stimulates the modern essence of knowledge and knowledge creation.
•It provides a framework for the supervision or for the managing relevant processes.LIMITATIONS OF SECI MODEL•This model is established for the study of Japanese organisations, which primarily depend on tacit knowledge.•The linearity of the concept-can the spiral jump steps? Can it go counter-clockwise?Knowledge management is continuous method of new interactions between tacit and explicit knowledge. Knowledge management approach enables not only description of what is happening but also provides better prescription for meeting organisational goals (Dalkir, 2011). . All four phases of SECI model interacts in knowledge creation spiral and reveals how the knowledge shared and create in an organisation.ReferencesDalkir, K.
(2011). Knowledge management in theory and practice. Cambridge, Massachusetts: the MIT press.Grant, R.M. (1996), “Toward a knowledge based theory of the firm” , Strategic Management journal, vol.17, special issue, pp.
109-22.Nonaka, I. (1994). „A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation?. Organization Science, 5, 1, pp 14-37.Nonaka, I.
and Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company.NewYork, Oxford:OxfordUniversity Press.Nonaka, I.
, Byosiere, P., Borucki, C.C.
and Konno, N. (1994). „Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory: a first comprehensive test?. InternationalBusiness Review, 3, 4, pp 337-351.