UNFPA, 1994, in their charter on Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, has cited that “Reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes.” This definition makes clear that the individuals have the right for seeking information, access to good health care services, right for safe family planning methods as granted to them by the law, right to seek appropriate health care services which ensures women to safely undergo pregnancy and childbirth and gives the couple every chance to have a healthy infant. Based on these, it can be said that reproductive health care is an umbrella term used for explaining methods, techniques and services accessed by those in need for prevention on reproductive health care needs and also solving them. Sexual health also forms one of the important aspects of reproductive health.
UNFPA, 1994 and Ravindran, 2001 have defined the concept of reproductive health rights. Reproductive rights comprise a constellation of rights, established by international human rights documents, and related to people’s ability to make decisions that affect their sexual and reproductive health (Ravindran, 2001).
it considers conception and childbirth as basic rights of individuals just as a fundamental right. Power to decide freely, how many children they want, and to attain the highest standard and quality of sexual life they would like to have. It also ensures their right to make decisions in matters of reproductive health as free of discrimination, coercion and violence, as expressed in human rights documents (UNFPA, 1994).
Women have been portrayed as the weaker sex throughout and infertility has been seen as woman’s problem. A gender based perspective adds weight to this conceptualization. This does not rely on the biology of the individual, rather as a rights perspective. It expresses on how a woman’s biology can be a vulnerability. Psychological wellness issues may create as an outcome of reproductive health issues. These incorporate absence of decision in regenerative choices, unintended pregnancy, hazardous fetus removal, sexually transmissible diseases including HIV, childlessness and pregnancy difficulties, for example, unsuccessful labor, stillbirth, untimely birth or fistula. Psychological wellness has a proportionate relationship with physical well-being.
It is for the most part more difficult when physical health including nutrition is poor. Depression after labor is related with maternal physical ill-health and is treatable. Ravindran, 2001, has portrayed in the work by the WHO on Women’s emotional wellness and mental health about the different Reproductive privileges of the female partner. The rights that are being depicted by her have its premise in the different audits of writing and the group from the WHO that has been working in the domain. Based on the findings of the team, she has proposed nine points which need to considered as Reproductive Rights of Women. Powers to make their own decisions about conception, number of children they want, protecting themselves against partner violence, sexual violence, forced abortions, getting education about sexual and reproductive health ,no discrimination of the basis of gender and taking an informed choice on the basis of information sought. 1.
3.3 The Role of Mental Health in Reproduction and Women’s Mental Health Mental health is an important aspect of reproductive health., even though has limited space and the attention given to this is negligibly small. The absence of consideration like other medical illness has led to significant contributions in increasing global burden of illness and and disability.
Psychological well-being issues may create as a result from conception related medical issues . These incorporate absence of decision in conception choices, unintended pregnancy, risky fetus removal through unsafe abortions, sexually transmissible diseases including HIV and pregnancy complications like unsuccessful labor, stillbirth, premature birth or fistula. Positive mental health is firmly joined with physical well being. It is for the most part more awful when physical well being including nutritious status is poor. Melancholy and sadness after labor is related with maternal physical morbidity, including tireless unhealed stomach or perineal injuries and incontinence.Neuro-psychiatric disorders top the list of incapacity among persons world over among common ten such condition’s. Depression is the commonest among such conditions.
Affective disorders are the leading cause of or over one in 10 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost (Murray & Lopez, 1996).One DALY is calculated as a year lost from healthy life. Depression is seen more commonly in women as compared to men.
It has been identified by various studies and also by Murray & Lopez, 1996, that unipolar depression as one of the major illness creating more DALY’s than any other condition in the context of childlessness. It has been estimated that men loose upto three DALY’s against women with loss of nine DALY’s ,Murray ; Lopez, 1998. current statistics state that more than one fifty million people world wide experience depression each year.
There is a lack of awareness among women about their own health problems. They have been used to the idea of “normal” to have health issues and to not seek treatment until the condition deteriorates further. There is a social stigma attached to feeling emotional and vulnerable. This culture of silence is even more when there are mental health issues involved. Mental health problems create a sense of feeling abnormal in women with involuntary childlessness.
Hence, it is quite difficult to quantify the imp