UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH
Labuan International Campus Faculty of International Finance
GT00403 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
Both selfishness and selflessness start with the self: How wealth shapes
responses to charitable appeals
PREPARED BY: GROUP 10
NO. NAME MATRIC NO. PROGRAM
1. DENIS SIAH WEI ZHENG BG17110158 HE21
2. NG JOE YEN BG17110201 HE22
3. IONA PHANG EE LIN BG17110197 HE22
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1.0MAIN ISSUE PAGEREF _Toc529711096 h 31.1 Charitable appeals emphasizing agency encourage donations for more affluent PAGEREF _Toc529711097 h 31.2 Charitable appeals emphasizing communion encourage donations for less affluent PAGEREF _Toc529711098 h 31.3 Tailoring messages to fit wealth-based self-concepts enhances charitable giving PAGEREF _Toc529711099 h 32.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION PAGEREF _Toc529711100 h 42.1 Charitable appeals emphasizing agency encourage donations for more affluent PAGEREF _Toc529711101 h 42.2 Charitable appeals emphasizing communion encourage donations for less affluent PAGEREF _Toc529711102 h 42.3 Tailoring messages to fit wealth-based self-concepts enhances charitable giving PAGEREF _Toc529711103 h 43.0 RECOMMENDATIONS AND SOLUTIONS PAGEREF _Toc529711104 h 53.1 Take benefits of contagious generosity PAGEREF _Toc529711105 h 53.2 Focus appeals on a single person and use it to overcome prejudice PAGEREF _Toc529711106 h 53.3 Show the impact of donations PAGEREF _Toc529711107 h 54.0 CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc529711108 h 65.0 REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc529711109 h 7References PAGEREF _Toc529711110 h 76.0 Turnitin Report PAGEREF _Toc529711111 h 8
MAIN ISSUEDefine the types of appeals that are most effective at motivating generosity:
1.1 Charitable appeals emphasizing agency encourage donations for more affluentWhen the appeal emphasized agency (to pursuit personal goals), wealthier individuals reported greater willingness to give and donated more money to charity. In the survey, participants were told to place themselves on a 10 step ladder which represented where people stand in society. Due to the survey, they are able to collect the data of the participants upper-class individuals typically develop more agentic self-concepts, whereby the self is primarily defined by one’s individual capacity for personal control CITATION Abe l 17417 (Abele)Consistent with this theorizing, people with higher incomes—and those who subjectively feel higher in social rank—report higher perceptions of personal controlCITATION Kra y l 17417 (Kraus), and higher-class individuals show a greater desire to make decisions for the self CITATION Ste11 l 17417 (Stephens, 2011). Related research suggests that money produces a self-sufficient, agentic mind set because having money enables people to meet personal goals without relying on the help of others. CITATION Gas16 l 17417 (Gasiorowska, 2016)
1.2 Charitable appeals emphasizing communion encourage donations for less affluentWhen the appeal emphasized communion (to pursuit of shared goals), less wealthy individuals reported greater willingness to give. The lower-class individuals typically develop more communal self-concepts, whereby the self is primary defined by one’s social connection to others.
1.3 Tailoring messages to fit wealth-based self-concepts enhances charitable givingBy tailoring messages to fit with people’s self-concepts, it is possible to catalyse giving across the socioeconomic spectrum. One approach for minimizing motivational conflicts is to tailor messages to an individual’s specific goal orientation. Indeed, research suggests that messages are more impactful when they fit with people’s underlying motivations CITATION Ces04 l 17417 (Cesario, 2004). This is because such messages encourage motivational fit and increase the perceived value of the intended action CITATION Hig00 l 17417 (Higgins, 2000) .Following from this work, the authors suggest that providing a fit between a charitable appeal and the donor’s self-concept should increase generosity. If recent theorizing is correct, wealthier individuals should be more inclined to donate in response to appeals that emphasize agentic goals, whereas less wealthy individuals should be more inclined to donate in response to appeals that emphasize communal goals.
2.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND EVALUATIONThe three proposed solutions that given in the case report are agree and these are our opinion:
2.1 Charitable appeals emphasizing agency encourage donations for more affluentBased on the report above, we agree on that statement because conscientiousness refers to the extent where a person can get things done for example, are organized, detail-oriented, responsible and dependable. People with strong conscientiousness will pass up work on time and won’t be overlooking various tasks. An upper-class participants in the charitable appeals have a very strong conscientiousness.
2.2 Charitable appeals emphasizing communion encourage donations for less affluentWe have found out that, the lower-class individuals typically develop more communal self-concepts. They have a very strong personality traits of agreeableness. They have the ability to get along with others. These individuals are more gentle, forgiving and cooperative compare to the others. They likely to have a good relationship with others. This is because they know how an individual stand in a society with their society status.
2.3 Tailoring messages to fit wealth-based self-concepts enhances charitable givingBased on the study, we agreed that wealthier individuals expressed greater intentions to donate and donated more of their study payment after viewing an agentic versus communal appeal. We also found that less wealthy individuals donated more of their study payment after viewing a communal versus agentic appeal. One strength of these studies is that people differed in their reactions to the appeals already in use by a real charity, thus maximizing external validity.
3.0 RECOMMENDATIONS AND SOLUTIONS3.1 Take benefits of contagious generosityWe suggest that we can take benefits of contagious generosity because found that several studies suggest that generosity can be socially contagious. People who watched others make generous donations donated more than those who watched stingy donations CITATION Eri16 l 1033 (Erik C. Nook, 2016). Another experiment in this study also found that when people saw empathic group responses to emotional scene, they were more likely to experience empathy in themselves and then to donate more money to a homeless shelter. This mean that generosity can be widely spread among humans. This link to influences of society to another society.
3.2 Focus appeals on a single person and use it to overcome prejudiceWe found that it is easier for someone to make a donation to a specific person that they know their identity such as name, face and etc. There are study show evidence that supporting this recommendation. The study state that people are more willing to provide aid to a single individual with a name and a face than to an anonymous victim or a nebulous group of victims CITATION Sey16 l 1033 (lee ; Feeley, 2016). This effect can be very deep. This suggests that charities that are trying to help thousands of people should highlight how a potential donor could make a difference for a specific person CITATION Dan14 l 1033 (Västfjäll, Slovic, Mayorga, ; Peters, 2014) .This solution can let donors know who they help and how much helps did they gave to them.
3.3 Show the impact of donationsWhen it comes to charity, most of the people tend to know what impact their donations brought. We found that it is important to let the people know what they are donate and what will happen after they make the donations. This is because they want to know how their donation will make a tangible difference. As example, giving more money to a charity led to more happiness, but only when participants were told that their donation would specifically buy a bed net for a child in Africa (and how that bed net would make a difference in that child’s life)—not when they were told their donation would simply support the charity’s general fund CITATION Lar131 l 1033 (B.Aknin, W.Dunn, V.Whillans, M.Grant, ; I.Norton, 2013). This suggestion fully highlight the impact of donations could lead an increase in charity.
Understanding the messages that encourage prosocial behaviour for more and less wealthy individuals is important. Wealth is associated with differences in people’s self-concepts. We propose that these self-concepts should define the types of appeals that are most effective at motivating generosity.
5.0 REFERENCESReferences BIBLIOGRAPHY Abele, A. E. (n.d.). Agency and communion from the perspective of self versus others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
B.Aknin, L., W.Dunn, E., V.Whillans, A., M.Grant, A., & I.Norton, M. (2013). Making a difference matters: Impact unlocks the emotional benefits of prosocial spending. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 90-95.
Cesario, J. G. (2004). Regulatory fit and persuasion. Journal of personality and social psychology.
Erik C. Nook, D. C. (2016). Prosocial Conformity: Prosocial Norms Generalize Across Behavior and Empathy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
Gasiorowska, A. C. (2016). Money cues increase agency and decrease prosociality among children: early signs of market-mode behaviors. Psychological Science.
Higgins. (2000). Making a good decision. American Psychologist.
Kraus, M. W.-D. (2012). Social class, solipsism, contextualism. How the rich dfferent from the poor.
lee, S., & Feeley, T. H. (2016). The identifiable victim effect: a meta-analytic review. Social Influence.
Stephens, N. M. (2011). When choice does not equal freedom. Social Psychological and Personality Science.
Västfjäll, D., Slovic, P., Mayorga, M., & Peters, E. (2014). Compassion Fade: Affect and Charity Are Greatest for a Single Child in Need.
6.0 Turnitin Report