v Speciation Ø Sympatric Speciation v Allopatric speciation-When

v Macroevolution is the evolution of the organism in macro level. It willlead to the development of new adaptive trait whichin turn leads to the formation of new group of organisms which results in theformation of newspecies.v Macroevolution operates at species level orabove the species level.v It will spilt the population intogroups and each of the groups will adapt themselves as a result of it new species will form. This kind of Evolution is known as AdaptiveRadiation. v Speciation is the formation of thenew species.

It is an important aspect of Macroevolution. The following are thetwo major types of speciation. They areØ Allopatric SpeciationØ Sympatric Speciationv Allopatric speciation-When two related population occupy two differentgeographical areas it is known as Allopatric Species. The evolution of allopatricpopulation into two separate species is known as Allopatric speciation. v It is mainly due to Ø Geographical Isolation-The isolation of two species due to Geographical Barrierssuch as mountain, river, sea, etc.

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,Ø Reproductive Isolation-The isolation of organisms due to Reproductive barriers. Itincludes ü Extrinsic- external factors ü Intrinsic factors-Mechanical , Ecological, Temporal, Behavioural, GameticIsolation, Hybrid inviability, etc., v Sympatric speciation-Related population remain side by side but it is isolated byintrinsic mechanism not geographical isolation. They will evolve into twodifferent species. v Among the members of the sympatricpopulation there will be a competition for food, space, etc.

,v In the competition one population mayadaptthemselves for survival. They may change their diet pattern, they may changetheir habitat and they may migrate to other places.v As a result, of these changes twodifferent populations may be evolved.v In addition to these, other factorslike mutation,Polyploidy and hybridization mayalso contribute to speciation.Thus macroevolution leads to the formation of new species.


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