Wave words) Wave phenomenon B The photo

Wave phenomenon A Huygens’ Principle says that a wavefront is formed ofmany individual wave sources that each interfere to produce a combined waveline. As a wavefront approaches a single slit, the size of the slit relative tothe wavelength will determine the diffraction of the wave as it passes throughthe slit.

Maximum diffraction will occur if the slit closely matches thewavelength as this will minimise the interference from overlapping waves andallow the wave to spread out. If the slit doesn’t match the wavelength,interference will mean that waves cancel each other out and reduce diffraction.(100 words) The double slit experiment demonstrates constructive anddestructive interference when waves diffract through two slits. If a wavefrontapproaches and wave sources pass through the slits, the wave sources willdiffract depending on the wavelength/slit ratio and spread out, though as thewave-fronts from the two slits meet and interfere they will produce areas ofincreased or decreased energy. Where the phase difference between the two wavesleads to constructive interference, the wave will amplify, while if the overlapleads to destructive interference, the wave will cancel out.

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In between will beareas of moderate interference. (96 words) Wave phenomenon B The photo on the left shows a filter polarising sunlightby blocking or absorbing light waves that do not align with the filter, andallowing other waves that do to pass through. To improve the image quality, afilter is used to reduce excessive brightness or glare by polarising some wavesin the transverse direction, where it can pass through the filter without suchintensity. The photo on the right without a filter shows the glare caused bylight waves reflecting from the water into the camera lens, amplifying theambient brightness.

(92 words) Wave phenomenon C Sound waves transport energy through a medium, so when aspeaker plays a sound at the resonant frequency of the wine glass, the glass willoscillate at that frequency, with the sound waves pushing against the moleculesin the glass. As the frequency increases, the glass will vibrate more and moreuntil the oscillation causes the glass molecules to break down, and the glasswill shatter. The volume of the sound will also break down the glass as theamplitude of the wave increases. The other glasses remain intact as they havedifferent resonant frequencies.

(95 words) Wave phenomenon D The dark lines in the spectrum of sunlight represent thematerials that absorbed photons from the sunlight and therefore the energy ofthat wavelength was absorbed by electrons in such material in order to move upenergy levels. The absorption spectrum represents electrons moving down energylevels and releasing photons, the colour of which depends on the materialitself and its temperature. Comparing the absorption spectrum with colours ofelements in the lab can be used to determine the materials that the photonstravelled from. Likewise, studying the absorption spectrum of a distant starcan reveal information about the elements present in the star and the velocityof the star from blue-shift and red-shift wavelength patterns. (116 words)         Wave phenomenon E The diagram shows data collected from a Geiger counterand the distances between different readings from the gamma source. Therelationship between the data represents the inverse square law; intensity isinversely proportional to the distance squared.

 (The difference can be attributed to the backgroundradiation count.) This relationship can be used to determine unknownintensities of radiation or distances when other information is available, andfor gamma rays this is useful to understand how the wave energy is distributedover wide areas, since wave energy is proportional to amplitude squared. (98words)


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