What Social Democrat “treason” in West 1934

What were the major aims of foreign policy during the period?
spread of communism, “world revolution”
1919 Communist International (COMINTERN) established
Chinese Civil War involvement (1921-1927)
militarily, financially supported, advised communist and non-communist belligerents
1925 rise of Chiang Kai-shek
hardline anti-communist position
1927 Shanghai massacre, end of major COMINTERN involvement in China
1928 radicalisation of goals, COMINTERN
attacked Social Democrat “treason” in West
1934 practically abandoned
failed to incite communist revolution
allied with non-communist nations after 1933, 1934 part of League of Nations
new threat in fascism
Anti-Comintern Pact, Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Pact, Pact of Steel declared Soviet Union as adversary
1936-1939 Spanish Civil War
pro-Republican, supplied 40,000 soldiers, 2,000 airplanes
1939 Nationalist victory, General Franco leader of Spain
1943 COMINTERN officially terminated
peace with foreign nations
1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, officially exited World War I
preparation for, outbreak of war
contradictory peace proposals, rearmament programmes within Europe
1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact
idea of “banning” war
1939 Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
established Eastern European spheres of influence, halved Polish territory between
Was Russian/Soviet foreign policy more based on ideology or pragmatism?
COMINTERN establishment, aim to propagate communism worldwide
1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
fulfilled peace pledge from Bolsheviks
1920 Russo-Polish War
repelled invasion, but unsuccessful capture of Warsaw
“peaceful coexistence” only option to Lenin
1933 US relations
reaction to souring of Russo-German relations
1939 Nazi-Soviet Non-Agression Pact
temporary, defensive nature
fewer war fronts, more preparation time for armed forces
also counteracted distrust of allies’ reliability to repel German forces, especially British, Frenchx
ultimately (insert isolationist, or pragmatist)
With which countries did Russia/the Soviet Union establish relations?
Britain (1921)
Anglo-Soviet Trade Agreement (1921), reciprocal benefits, Russian government recognised as result
COMINTERN activities, support of 1926 British General Strike
treated as unloyal despite being wage issue, stirred hardline anti-Communist sentiments
led to 1926 official relations cut, slight reestablishment after German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact
officially reestablished amicable relations after Operation Barbarossa
promised 1.5 million tonnes US, British materiel by June 1942 under Lend-Lease
Germany (1922)
Treaty of Rapallo (16 April, 1922) official establishment of relations, reaffirmed after French-Belgian Invasion of Ruhr, Treaty of Berlin (1926)
1920s “natural allies” as international rejects, Germany for WWI, Russia/Soviet Union for communism
conceptually reset financial obligations, diplomatic tensions
practically created economic, military alliance
ended solitariness
still political tensions
lesser, eventually insignificant COMINTERN involvement after 1923
allowed strengthening of relations
May 1933 diplomacy officially broken
no longer allies, Adolf Hitler believed communism and fascism opposing forces
tensions after German-Italian Anti-Comintern Pact (1936), Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Pact (1937, precursor to Axis Alliance), Pact of Steel (1939), anti-communist intensions
also separated by German aggression, invasion of neighbouring countries (1938 Austria, 1939 Czechoslovakia)
19 August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
basis for major Soviet foreign policy before 1941
22 June 1941 Operation Barbarossa (German invasion of Soviet Union), all ties broken
United States (1933)
small indirect trade beforehand, perceived infringement of international norms (October Revolution, Civil War), created despite dissimilar political ideologies
direct response to German relation breakdown, uncertainty of German, Japanese foreign policy objectives
1939 invasion of Poland, Russo-Finnish War
relations strained, Soviet motives criticised
adversary, despite not Axis power officially
1941 Lend-Lease to Soviet Union after German invasion
1.5 million tonnes US, British materiel by June 1942 promised, provided much more during war
friendly Moscow-Washington relationship
Soviet Union officially Allied power, no longer “neutral”
Other countries
France (1921) – trade, recognition of government, ties broken after disruptive COMINTERN activities
later reestablished (1934) to counter German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact, Anglo-German Naval Agreement (1934)
Italy (1921) – trade, recognition of government, eventual souring of relations after Benito Mussolini in power (1922)
Japan (1925) – diplomacy, soured after Invasion of Manchuria (1931), aggression towards Soviet Union
Poland (1929) – non-aggression with Romania, Latvia, Estonia, separate Russo-Polish non-aggression pact (1934), diplomacy broken after joint Russo-German invasion of Poland (1939)
Czechoslovakia (1934) – reaction to German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact, Anglo-German Naval Agreement (1934), non-aggression,
China (1937) – friendship, response to Japanese aggression
How did major allies shape Russian/Soviet foreign policy or international relations during the period?
Operation Barbarossa after Russo-Finnish War
influenced by much greater Russian losses, pyrrhic victory
100,000+ deaths, despite militarily exceeding 4:1 men, 200:1 tanks, 30:1 aircraft
victory only because Finnish forces’ armaments completely exhausted
United States

How did treaties, laws and other legal factors contribute to the success or failure of Russian/Soviet international relations?
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Russia formally withdrawn from World War I

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Treaties of Rapallo (1922) and Berlin (1926)

Nazi-Soviet Non-Agression Pact (1939)

United States
To what extent did change in Russia/the Soviet Union occur due to international relations?

What were the most significant parts of Russian/Soviet foreign policy or international relations?


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