What Social Democrat “treason” in West 1934

What were the major aims of foreign policy during the period?spread of communism, “world revolution”1919 Communist International (COMINTERN) establishedChinese Civil War involvement (1921-1927)militarily, financially supported, advised communist and non-communist belligerents1925 rise of Chiang Kai-shekhardline anti-communist position1927 Shanghai massacre, end of major COMINTERN involvement in China1928 radicalisation of goals, COMINTERNattacked Social Democrat “treason” in West1934 practically abandonedfailed to incite communist revolutionallied with non-communist nations after 1933, 1934 part of League of Nationsnew threat in fascismAnti-Comintern Pact, Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Pact, Pact of Steel declared Soviet Union as adversary1936-1939 Spanish Civil Warpro-Republican, supplied 40,000 soldiers, 2,000 airplanes1939 Nationalist victory, General Franco leader of Spain1943 COMINTERN officially terminatedpeace with foreign nations1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, officially exited World War Ipreparation for, outbreak of warcontradictory peace proposals, rearmament programmes within Europe1928 Kellogg-Briand Pactidea of “banning” war1939 Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pactestablished Eastern European spheres of influence, halved Polish territory betweenWas Russian/Soviet foreign policy more based on ideology or pragmatism?ideologyCOMINTERN establishment, aim to propagate communism worldwide1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovskfulfilled peace pledge from Bolshevikspragmatism1920 Russo-Polish Warrepelled invasion, but unsuccessful capture of Warsaw”peaceful coexistence” only option to Lenin 1933 US relationsreaction to souring of Russo-German relations1939 Nazi-Soviet Non-Agression Pacttemporary, defensive naturefewer war fronts, more preparation time for armed forcesalso counteracted distrust of allies’ reliability to repel German forces, especially British, Frenchxultimately (insert isolationist, or pragmatist)With which countries did Russia/the Soviet Union establish relations?Britain (1921)Anglo-Soviet Trade Agreement (1921), reciprocal benefits, Russian government recognised as resultCOMINTERN activities, support of 1926 British General Striketreated as unloyal despite being wage issue, stirred hardline anti-Communist sentimentsled to 1926 official relations cut, slight reestablishment after German-Polish Non-Aggression Pactofficially reestablished amicable relations after Operation Barbarossapromised 1.5 million tonnes US, British materiel by June 1942 under Lend-LeaseGermany (1922)Treaty of Rapallo (16 April, 1922) official establishment of relations, reaffirmed after French-Belgian Invasion of Ruhr, Treaty of Berlin (1926)1920s “natural allies” as international rejects, Germany for WWI, Russia/Soviet Union for communismconceptually reset financial obligations, diplomatic tensionspractically created economic, military allianceended solitarinessstill political tensionslesser, eventually insignificant COMINTERN involvement after 1923allowed strengthening of relationsMay 1933 diplomacy officially brokenno longer allies, Adolf Hitler believed communism and fascism opposing forcestensions after German-Italian Anti-Comintern Pact (1936), Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Pact (1937, precursor to Axis Alliance), Pact of Steel (1939), anti-communist intensionsalso separated by German aggression, invasion of neighbouring countries (1938 Austria, 1939 Czechoslovakia)19 August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pactbasis for major Soviet foreign policy before 194122 June 1941 Operation Barbarossa (German invasion of Soviet Union), all ties brokenUnited States (1933)small indirect trade beforehand, perceived infringement of international norms (October Revolution, Civil War), created despite dissimilar political ideologiesdirect response to German relation breakdown, uncertainty of German, Japanese foreign policy objectives1939 invasion of Poland, Russo-Finnish Warrelations strained, Soviet motives criticisedadversary, despite not Axis power officially1941 Lend-Lease to Soviet Union after German invasion1.5 million tonnes US, British materiel by June 1942 promised, provided much more during warfriendly Moscow-Washington relationshipSoviet Union officially Allied power, no longer “neutral”Other countriesFrance (1921) – trade, recognition of government, ties broken after disruptive COMINTERN activitieslater reestablished (1934) to counter German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact, Anglo-German Naval Agreement (1934)Italy (1921) – trade, recognition of government, eventual souring of relations after Benito Mussolini in power (1922)Japan (1925) – diplomacy, soured after Invasion of Manchuria (1931), aggression towards Soviet UnionPoland (1929) – non-aggression with Romania, Latvia, Estonia, separate Russo-Polish non-aggression pact (1934), diplomacy broken after joint Russo-German invasion of Poland (1939)Czechoslovakia (1934) – reaction to German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact, Anglo-German Naval Agreement (1934), non-aggression, China (1937) – friendship, response to Japanese aggressionHow did major allies shape Russian/Soviet foreign policy or international relations during the period?GermanyOperation Barbarossa after Russo-Finnish Warinfluenced by much greater Russian losses, pyrrhic victory100,000+ deaths, despite militarily exceeding 4:1 men, 200:1 tanks, 30:1 aircraftvictory only because Finnish forces’ armaments completely exhaustedUnited StatesHow did treaties, laws and other legal factors contribute to the success or failure of Russian/Soviet international relations?GermanyTreaty of Brest-LitovskRussia formally withdrawn from World War ITreaties of Rapallo (1922) and Berlin (1926)Nazi-Soviet Non-Agression Pact (1939)United StatesTo what extent did change in Russia/the Soviet Union occur due to international relations?What were the most significant parts of Russian/Soviet foreign policy or international relations?

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