When presenting the theoretical framework for their study, Walker, Shenker, and Hoover-Dempsey (2010) discussed the cultural background of parents and how that influenced their school involvement level. These authors described four levels of involvement. Level 1 dealt with why parents become involved in, or what motivates them to participate in, their children’s education. One of the most consistent factors influencing parents’ motivation was parents’ reports. So if a parent receives an invitation to participate in some way, regardless of who extends the invitation (child or teacher), and the parent’s reports of the invitation were positive, that parent is more likely motivated to get involved.
Levels 1.5 and 2 focused on the definition of parental involvement. As noted in the literature, parental involvement can be expressed in many different forms; however, participation in schools was referred to as the traditional type of involvement (Walker, Shenker, & Hoover-Dempsey, 2010). Walker et al. indicated parental involvement could also be defined as the reinforcement and encouragement parents give to their children. Level 3 involvement deals with the responsibility of the students to become involved in their own achievement.