With a tendency to put a person

With the development of modern linguistic science anthropocentrism has become the dominant principle of many researches. Such approach reflects a tendency to put a person at the center of all theoretical assumptions so that a person is not just involved in the analysis of certain phenomena, but also defines the prospects and goals of this analysis. Individual characteristics of linguistic identity are of particular importance in the study of human language, the most important of them is the gender which is regarded both as a process and as a result of “embedding” the individual into socially- and culturally-determined models of masculinity or femininity, accepted in a given society at a certain historical stage of its development.
The sex, gender, gender stereotypes, gender behavior excite researchers of various branches of sciences. First of all, it reflects in psychological researches. But recently the linguists also showed great interest in this issue. The gender stereotypes are investigated and come to light in literature, phraseology, lexicon, speech behavior, etc.
While many Indo-European languages have grammatical gender, English is normally described as lacking of this type of gender, although in the Old English period it was a very productive inflectional category. Gender was no more inflectional category in Modern English.
The development of gender marked nominations of person was also influenced by the development of society and by changing roles of males and females in society. The rise of feminism had impact on the development of new nominations marked by gender as well, especially in the employment sphere. In the process of the language development gender had changed its status in grammar and semantics.
Slang is of particular interest in the study of masculinity and femininity as language phenomena. Being a rapidly developing and changing language system, slang is capable to reflect the true picture of socio-group interactions and hierarchy within these groups. In an effort to monitor the current situation the slang is in we tried to carry out a contrastive analysis of English and Ukrainian gender-marked slang.
Before this study, there have been other researches related to slang in English and Ukrainian. However, none of them focused on gender-marked slang and carried out the contrastive analysis.
The object of the paper is English and Ukrainian gender-marked slang words that are currently in use. The subject of the paper is grammatical, structural, functional and semantical characteristics of this slang.
The aim of this paper is to examine the occurrence of gender-marked slang expressions and single out their differences and similarities in English and Ukrainian languages.
The objectives of the research are as follows:
? to single out distinctive features of Ukrainian and English gender-marked slang words and expressions;
? to look into slang-formation processes and determine which ones are the most productive in Ukrainian and English slang;
? to analyze types of gender markers and decide which turn out to be the most effective;
? to find out whether extra linguistic factors influence the process of slang formation and if so, which and how;
? to work out the semantic shades of meaning of gender-marked slang words and expressions;
? to explain their main functions and role in the language system;
? to compare Ukrainian and English gender-marked slang words and expressions on grammatical, structural, conceptual an lexical levels.
The methodology used is a combination of quantitative and comparative methods. Data were collected from a number of English and Ukrainian dictionaries. The collected gender-marked slang words were then analyzed grammatically, semantically and statistically. The contrastive analysis is represented by the outlined distinctions and similarities which were previously found at grammatical and semantical levels.
The data was collected from 1 Ukrainian and 8 English dictionaries. The total amount of collected English gender-marked slang words and expressions is 104, the amount of Ukrainian ones is 108.
The relevance of the work is dictated by the need of studying of slang units coding gender with the use of gender markers, and its embodiments in two structurally different languages. It opens new data which can be useful both at an explanation of language identities, and at the solution of some difficulties of the translation.
The practical value of the work is defined by possibility of using the results
of real research in various aims: in further researches on linguistics or when developing courses of special disciplines on studying the slang.
There are 3 chapters in this paper. Chapter 1 lays the theoretical foundation for the following analysis. In chapter 2 the grammatical, morphemic and semantic analysis is being carried out. In Chapter 3 Results and Discussions present and discuss the findings of the study compare them between two languages. Conclusion summarizes the main points, states the conclusions, admits limitations.
The research paper consists of pages.


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