WOLAITA Declaration…………………………………………………………………………….….ii Acknowledgement ……………………………………………………………………………………..iii Abbreviations and Acronyms ………………………………………………………………………

WOLAITA SODO UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES INTERNAL CONTROL EFFECT ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF MICRO FIANANCE INSTITUTIONS IN ETHIOPIA: THE CASE OF OMO MICRO FINANCE INSTITUTION IN WOLAITA ZONE A Thesis/Dissertation Submitted to Department of Accounting and Finance School of Graduate Studies, Wolaita Sodo University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of MSc in Accounting and Finance from Wolaita Sodo University Biruk Zara Chanko Major Advisor: Durga Rao (Ph.D.) April 25, 2018 Wolaita Sodo UniversityTABLE OF CONTENTS Approval Sheet………………………………………………………………………i Declaration…………………………………………………………………………….….

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1 1.2 Statement of the problem…………………………………………………………………………..3 1.3 Research Objective…………………………………………………………………………………..3 1.3.1. General Objective of the Study…………………………………………3 1.3.2. Specific Objective of the Study…………………………………………3 1.4. Research Questions and Hypotheses……………………………………………4 1.4.1 Research Questions………………………………………………………4 1.4.2 Research Hypothesis……………………………………………………..4 1.5. Significance of the Study……………………………………………………….5 1.6. Scope and Limitation of Study…………………………………………………5 1.7 Conceptual frameworks………………………………………………………….5 1.8. Structure of the Thesis…………………………………………………………..6 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ………………………………………………………..7 2.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………….7 2.2 Theoretical Framework………………………………………………………………………………7 2.2.1 Institutional Theory………………………………………………………7 2.2.2 Stakeholder’s Theory…………………………………………………….8 2.2.3 Stewardship Theory………………………………………………………8 2.3 Control Environment ………………………………………………………………………………..8 2.4 Internal Audit and Financial performance. …………………………………………………..8 2.5 Value of internal control and risk management………………………………………….. .10 2.6 Control Activities …………………………………………………………………………………….10 2.7 Performance………………………………………………………………………11 2.7.1 Measures of Financial performance …………………………………………………………11 2.7.1.1 Liquidity ……………………………………………………………………………………12 2.7.1.2 Accountability ……………………………………………………………………………12 2.7.1.3 Reporting……………………………………………………………………………………12 2.7.1.4 Servival………………………………………………………………………………………13 2.8 Empirical Studies ……………………………………………………………………………………142.9 Research Gap……………………………………………………………………14 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY……………………………………………15 3.1 Research Design……………………………………………………………………………………… 15 3.2 Sampling Design………………………………………………………………………………………15 3.2.1 Study Population…………………………………………………………………………….15 3.2.2 Population Size……………………………………………………………16 3.2.3 Sampling frame……………………………………………………………16 3.3 Data sources, collection and procedure…………………………………………..16 3.4 Reliability Tests for Data collection Instruments………………………………..16 3.5 Data Analysis and Presentation…………………………………………………..16 3.6 Research Ethics ……………………………………………………………………………………….17 CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSI ON OFFINDINGS…….18 4.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………. …18 4.2 Data Reliability…………………………………………………………………….18 4.3 Profile of Respondents…………………………………………………………………18 4.3.1 Gender Distribution……………………………………………………….18 4.3.2 Branch Distribution of the Respondents…………………………………..19 4.3.3 Position held in the organization…………………………………………..19 4.3.4 Level of Education Attained………………………………………………20 4.3.4 Work experience of respondent……………………………………………20 4.4 Descriptive Analysis………………………………………………………………21 4.4.1 Descriptive Analysis on Internal Control Environment……………………21 4.4.1.1 Integrity and Ethical Values…………………………………………21 4.4.1.2 Commitment to Competence ……………………………………….22 4.4.1.3 Management Philosophy and Operating Style………………………23 4.4.1.4 Organizational Structure…………………………………………….24 4.4.1.5 Assignment of Authority and Responsibility………………………..25 4.4.1.6. Human Resource Policy and Practices……………………………..25 4.4.2 Descriptive Analysis on Internal Audit Function…………………………29 4.4.2.1 Monitoring and Evaluation………………………………………….29 4.4.2.2 Fraud Prevention, Detection and Control……………………………29 4.4.2.3 Reporting……………………………………………………………..30 4.4.3 Descriptive Analysis on Risk Management………………………………31 4.4.3.1 Risk Identification ………………………………………………..31 4.4.3.2 Risk Evaluation …………………………………………………..31 4.4.3.3 Risk Mitigation ……………………………………………………32 4.4.4 Descriptive Analysis on Control Activities………………………………33 4.4.4.1 Information and Communication………………………………….33 4.4.4.2 Policies and Procedure ……………………………………………33 4.4.5 Descriptive Analysis on Financial Performance………………………….34 4.5 Relationship between Internal Control and financial performance………………35 4.5.1 Control environment and financial performance…………………………36 4.5.2 Internal audit and financial performance…………………………………36 4.5.3 Risk management and financial performance…………………………….37 4.5.4 Internal Control activities and financial performance…………………….37 4.6 Inferential Analysis……………………………………………………………….37 4.6.1 Regression Analysis on Internal Control Environment Versus Financial Performance………………………………………………….37 4.6.2 Regression Analysis on Internal Audit Function versus Financial Performance………………………………………………………….394.6.3 Regression Analysis on Risk Management versus Financial Performance………………………………………………………….41 4.6.4 Regression Analysis on Control Activities versus Financial Performance………………………………………………………. …43 4.7 Combined Effect Mode…………………………………………………………..45 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION…. ………………………………………………………47 5.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………….47 5.2 Summary of findings ………………………………………………………………………………..47 5.2.1 Functionality of the internal control system ……………………………………..47 5.2.2 Internal Control and Financial Performance …………………………………….47 5.3 Conclusions …………………………………………………………………………………………….48 5.4 Recommendations…………………………………………………………………………………….48 REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………………………..50 Appendix 1: Questionnaire……………………………………………………………………………..52SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES WOLAITA SODO UNIVERSITY As thesis/dissertation research advisor, I hereby certify that I have read and evaluated this thesis/dissertation prepared under my guidance by Biruk Zara entitled “Internal Control Effect on financial performance of micro finance institutions in Ethiopia: The case of Omo micro finance institutions in Wolaita zone”. I recommend that it be submitted as fulfilling the thesis/dissertation requirement. ___________________ __________________ _______________ Major Advisor Signature Date __________________ __________________ _______________ Co-Advisor Signature Date As members of the Board of Examiners of the M.Sc in Accounting and finance thesis/dissertation open defense examination, we certify that we have read and evaluated the thesis/dissertation prepared by Biruk Zara Chanko and examined the candidate. We recommend that the thesis/dissertation be accepted as fulfilling the thesis/dissertation requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Accounting and Finance. _________________ __________________ _________________ Chairperson Signature Date ________________ ___________________ _________________ Internal Examiner Signature Date ________________ ___________________ _________________ External Examiner Signature Date iDECLARATION By my signature below, I declare and affirm that this thesis/dissertation is my own work. I have followed all ethical principles of scholarship in the preparation, data collection, data analysis and completion of this thesis/dissertation. All scholarly matter that is included in the thesis/dissertation has been given recognition through citation. I affirm that I have cited and referenced all sources used in this document. Every serious effort has been made to avoid any plagiarism in the preparation of this thesis/dissertation. This thesis/dissertation is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for MSc from the School of Graduate Studies at Wolaita Sodo University. The thesis/dissertation is deposited in Wolaita Sodo University Library and is made available to borrowers under the rules of the library. I solemnly declare that this thesis/dissertation has not been submitted to any other institution anywhere for the award of any academic degree, diploma or certificate. Brief quotations from this thesis/dissertation may be used without special permission provided that accurate and complete acknowledgement of the source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotations from, or reproduction of, this thesis/dissertation in whole or in part may be granted by the head of the School or Department or the Dean of the School of Graduate Studies when in his or her judgment the proposed use of the material is in the interest of scholarship. In all other instances, however, permission must be obtained from the author of the thesis/dissertation. Name: Biruk Zara Chanko Signature: _____________ Date: 25/04/2018 School/Department: Accounting and finance Id No ACFN /MW/005 iiACKNOWLEDEMENT I am grateful to the God for the good health that was necessary to complete this research work. I am grateful to Durga Rao (Phd), Advisor, in the Department of Accounting and Finance. I am extremely thankful to him for valuable guidance and encouragement. I express my gratitude to all of my friend and parents for their help, encouragement and support.iii ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS MFI’s – Micro-finance institutions LIQUIDITY – Liquidity of micro finance institutions NGOs – Non-governmental Organizations MVA – Market Value Added AAS – Audit and Assurance Services AICPA – the American Institute of Certified Public Accounts SAS – Statement on Auditing Standards ACCA – Association of Chartered Certified Accountant COSO – Committee of Sponsoring Organizations ivLIST OF TABLES Table 4.1 Reliability statistics………………… …………………………………………….18 Table 4.2 Distribution of Respondents by Gender…………………………………………19 Table 4.3 Branch Distribution of the Respondents…………………………………………19 Table 4.4 Position held in the organization…………………………………………………20 Table 4.5 Highest Level of Education Attained …………………………………………..20 Table 4.6 Work experience of respondent…………………………………………………21 Table 4.7 Respondents’ Opinion on Internal Control Environment………………………..29 Table 4.8 Respondents’ Opinion on Internal Audit Function……………………………..31 Table 4.9 Respondents’ Opinion on Risk Management……………………………………33 Table 4.10 Respondents’ Opinion on Control Activities………………………………….35 Table 4.11 Respondents’ Opinion on Financial Performance…………………………….36 Table 4.12 Pearson’s Correlation analysis Correlation Matrix……………………………38 Table 4.13 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for Internal Control Environment……………..39 Table 4.14 Internal Control Environment and Financial Performance ………………………….40 Table 4.15 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for Internal Audit function………………………41 Table 4.16 Internal Audit function and Financial Performance …………………………………..42 Table 4.17 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for Risk Management……………………………..42 Table 4.18 Risk Management and Financial Performance…………………………………………..43 Table 4.19 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for Control Activities……………………………..44 Table 4.20 Risk Management and Financial Performance…………………………………………..44 Table 4.21 Model Summary………………………………………………………………44 Table 4.22 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)………….. ………………………………….45 Table 4.23 Relationships between Internal Control and Financial Performance…………….45 vLIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1 Conceptual frameworks………………………………………………………………5 Figure 4.1 Regression Model of Internal Control Environment on Financial Performance……..38 Figure 4.2 Regression Model on Internal Audit Function versus Financial Performance………40 Figure 4.3 Regression Model on Risk Management versus Financial Performance……………41 Figure 4.4 Regression Model on Internal Control Activities versus Financial Performance……43 ViLIST OF APPENDIX Appendix 1: Letter of Introduction by Researcher………………………………………. 55 Appendix 2: Questionnaire ………………………………………………………………………..56 viiABSTRACT Developing the efficiency internal control for micro-finance institutions in Ethiopia business practice is important. Various writers around the world attracted by internal control in control environment, internal audit function, risk management and Control activities on other hand Financial Performance Focused on perspectives of Profitability, Liquidity and Accountability. This study investigates the internal control Effect on financial performance of micro-finance institutions in Ethiopia. The organization and regulation is necessary in the micro-finance institutions because they faced lot of challenges including Poor Performance, malpractices and corruption. The background of the Study investigated to check the internal control effect on micro-Finance institutions so as to finding the causes of poor Performance in connection with finance of internal controls. The specific objectives included; to find out the effect of Control activities on financial performance of MFI’s in Ethiopia, to assess the effect of control environment on financial performance of MFI’s in Ethiopia, to identify the approvals of risk management on financial performance of MFI’s in Ethiopia and to establish the effect of internal audit function on financial performance of MFI’s in Ethiopia. The independent variable is internal control (risk management, internal audit function, control environment and Control activities) and the dependent variable is financial Performance. Research design was presented by descriptive method. Questionnaires used to gather primary data analyzed and presented through tables. Keywords: Control environment, internal audit, internal control effect, Micro-finance institutions and financial performance. vii1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1-Background of the Study: Internal control defined in auditing and accounting as a process for assuring achievement of an organization’s objectives in reliable financial reporting, operational effectiveness and efficiency, and compliance with laws, regulations and policies. A broad concept, internal control involves everything that controls risks to an organization. Financial access of poor households in Ethiopia is mainly through informal mechanisms, including trader, moneylenders, friends, relatives, ekubs and edirs (informal, credit and savings associations). Poor households have no access to formal commercial banking institutions or credit and savings cooperatives. Jennifer Sebstad (2014). Microfinance is still a new phenomenon in Ethiopia and gradually more attention and support is needed. It is embraced as an effective instrument either through stimulating social inclusion through economic participation or through the promotion of entrepreneurship and develops businesses. Omo Micro Finance Institution is the biggest Micro Finance Institution in Ethiopia which is Operating in South Nation’s Nationalities and People’s Regional State. It was established with the objective of providing efficient, effective and sustainable financial services in collaboration with non-governmental and governmental organizations in order to stimulate individual initiatives for self-sufficiency and take part in struggle to alleviate poverty in in Ethiopia. Since its establishment, it has been providing saving led credit provision and savings services to the low income societies in its operational area. The start and growth of the sector with the launch of many, fast growing micro-credit programs for the poor was on the bases of a theoretical framework and a strong awareness that something needed to be done about the plight of the poor. In Ethiopia Commercial banks granting loan to large and medium enterprises those are creditworthy and micro-finance institutions in Ethiopia become the primary source of income and generating income for the majority of low income group.2 Omo Microfinance institutions are one of financial institutions which are the main source of funding to enterprise as well as other project across the country. Micro fiancé institutions loans are smaller in terms of amount than bank loans, but have higher interest rates. Therefore the loans are insufficient to start a big business and provide basic needs only. Performance measures can be financial or non-financial. Both measures are used for competitive firms in the dynamic business environment. Financial measures of organizational performance include; return on assets, return on sales, return on equity, return on investment, return on capital employed and sales growth (Gerrit ; Abdolmohammadi, 2010). According to Donald (2013), appropriate performance measures are those which enable organizations to direct their actions towards achieving their strategic objectives. Gerrit and Abdolmohammadi (2010) contends that, performance is measured by either subjective or objective criteria; arguments for subjective measures include difficulties with collecting qualitative performance data from small firms and with reliability of such data arising from differences in accounting methods used by firms. 1.2. Statement of the Problem The establishment of internal control on financial Institutions is to achieve institutional goals, enable production of reliable reports, prevent loss of resources and ensure compliance with laws and regulations and thus internal control is an essential mechanism of the institutions achievement. Although, related studies that conducted on micro-finance institutions, clearly indicate that institutional financial performance and internal control is understudied area. Some challenges experienced with regard to internal control include; misuse and frauds of institutional resources, struggles with problem of Liquidity, financial reports are not made on timely basis, and a number of decisions made have not got the targeted results. Micro-finance Institutions struggle with financial malpractice, inefficiency in connection with defaulted loans, corruption, financial and operating expenses which are high for micro-finance Institutions and revenues from Micro-finance Institutions remain lower. The problem of financial crimes, increased for many years in the institution despite the fact that internal control have been in existence.3 Previous studies, have Confirmed that internal control set by management in most financial institutions has not been able to completely prevent fraudulent acts and corruption perpetuated by employees in most financial institutions. This research therefore investigates the internal control effect on the financial performance of micro- finance institutions the case of Omo micro-finance institutions in Wolaita zone and several ways have emerged on how to facilitate the Internal Controls effect thus ensuring achievement of the institution objectives and improved financial performance. 1.3. Objectives of the Study 1.3.1. General Objective of the Study The main objective of the study is to investigate the internal controls effect on financial performance of micro-finance institutions in Ethiopia. 1.3.2. Specific Objective of the Study The study specifically seeks to achieve the following objectives: 1. To find out the effect of internal audit function on financial performance of MFI’s in Ethiopia. 2. To assess the effect of control environment on financial performance of MFI’s in Ethiopia. 3. To identify the approvals of risk management on financial performance of MFI’s in Ethiopia. 4. To establish the effect of control activities on financial performance of MFI’s in Ethiopia. 1.4. Research Questions and Hypotheses 1.4.1 Research Questions i. What is the internal control effect on financial performance of Omo micro finance institution? ii. What is the relationship between control environment and financial performance of Omo MFI’s in Ethiopia? iii. At what extent specific factors affect financial performance of Omo micro finance institutions?4 iv. How did independent variables affect financial performance of Omo micro finance institutions? 1.4.2 Research Hypothesis Hypothesis stands on the theories which are related to internal control and its effect on MFI’s financial performance and describe the relationship of internal control andMFI’s financial performance in Ethiopia. The following hypothesis developed to answer research questions. Therefore, this research attempted to test the following hypotheses in the case of MFI’s. H1: There is significance relationship between control environment and financial performance of micro-finance institutions. H2: There is significance relationship between internal audit function and financial performance of micro-finance institutions. H3: There is significance relationship between risk management and financial performance of micro-finance institutions. H4: There is significance relationship between Control activities and financial performance of micro-finance institutions. Internal control is an Independent variable measured by the Control Environment, Risk management, internal auditing function, Control activities and their effects on Financial Performance, a dependent variable measured by the financial performance. 1.5. Significance of the Study The study is significant to the following groups of people:- 1. For the academicians, the study may add knowledge on internal control system and their impact, which may be used for further research in this area. 2. The study aims at examining internal control effect on financial performance of MFI’s ,this information will be useful to micro finance institutions because it will be used to address internal control thus improving the performance of MFI’s in the economy. 3. The findings and recommendations may be used for improving internal control effect and operations for the MFI’s.5 1.6. Scope and Limitation of Study This study is conducted to investigate the internal control effect on financial performance of micro-finance Institutions. The research is targeted on management, finance department, accounting department and agents in the eight major Omo micro-finance Institutions (sub branches) in the area. The study may encounter some sort of limitations. Those are time, logistics and resource constraints in terms of finance. On other hand, getting adequate information as pertains to internal control available posed a challenge as institutions had policies considering such information confidential. However, some measures put in place to minimize the problems which emerged in order to reach the Objectives of this thesis. 1.7. Conceptual Frameworks Figure 1.1 Conceptual frameworks INDEPENDENT In the Conceptual framework above, internal control is an Independent variable (measured by the Control Environment, internal audit, risk management and control activities) and its effect on Financial Performance; a dependent variable (measured by the Liquidity, accountability and profitability).The conceptual framework present a relationship among the key variables and its effect the financial performance of Micro-finance Institutions. The above framework was tested to show if the financial performance of a Micro-finance Institutions is a function of internal control. 1.8. Structure of the Thesis This part gives a structure of every chapter with in the thesis. The thesis consists five chapters. INDPENDENT VARIABLE DPENDENT VARIABLE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE . PROFITABLITY . LIQUIDITY .ACCOUNTABLITY CONTROL ENVIRONEMT INTERNAL AUDIT FUNCTION RISK MANAGEMENT CONTROL ACTIVITIES6 Chapter one is introduction, which presents background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, significance of the study and scope and limitation of the study. Chapter two presents literature review; it presents theoretical and empirical reviews. Chapter three presents methodology employed, Research design, nature of data and data collection instruments, target population and sampling data used in the research, variable description and model specification and model adopted and analytical tools. Chapter four presents the result collected from the regression output and discussion of regression result. Finally, chapter five presented the conclusions of the results and the recommendations regarding the study. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction This chapter outlines; theoretical literature review (control environment, internal audit, risk management, control activities, measures of financial performance) and empirical studies. 2.1.1 Definition of Internal Control Internal control defined as a set of mechanism designed to motivate an individual or a group towards achievement of a desired objective (Kirsch, 2002). Similarly, Transparency International (2006) reported that internal control is control developed by organization to generate transparency and avoid corruption. International Standard on Auditing (ISA 400) defines internal control as all policies and procedure adopted by the management of an entity to assist in achieving the primary objectives of the management by ensuring that the business is conducted in the most efficient way possible and also ensuring strict adherence to management policies, safeguarding of asset, prevention and detection of fraud and timely preparation of reliable account records. 2.2 Theoretical Literature Review There are several theoretical approaches which can be used to outline the financial performance of institutions, to select the predictors to the models, and to justify the functional form between these predictors. In this review these approaches are classified into the following categories; institutional theory, stewardship theory and stakeholder theory.7 2.2.1 Institutional Theory Institutional and neo-institutional theory suggests that adoption of organizational practices and environmental alignment is an institutional process subject to the effect of three pressures or forces – coercive, mimetic and normative. This theory further suggests that these forces can encourage organizations to adopt similar strategic actions thereby leading to organizational homogeneity (Adebanjo, Ojadi, Laosirihongthong & Tickle, 2013). The interests of shareholders have been strengthened over time, especially through efforts by the government and professional bodies. More specifically, there has been increased pressure on management to ensure that an organization is governed efficiently, effectively and economically for the benefit of shareholders. Much of this pressure has been a result of social expectations in response to recent corporate scandals (Christopher, Sarens & Leung, 2009). This study draws on institutional theory, which essentially points that organizational management and control structures tend to conform to social expectations. The theory therefore advances argument for enhanced corporate governance in management of organizations resources 2.2.2 Stakeholder’s Theory According to R. Edward Freeman (2015) stakeholder theory emphasizes that some individual or group are very important for the survival of the organization. This explanation is seen as organization oriented explanation, but in an earlier research Freedman reported that stakeholder theory refers to any group or individual who can affect or who is likely to be affected by the achievement of the organization objective. Freedman (2009) supported these in his definition of the stakeholders theory was more balance and covers a wider area than those of the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) (1963) which defined the theory simply as those people who, without their support and ideas, the organization would not exist. They further stated that Freedman definition was wider because it included individuals outside the firm and other groups that may consider themselves as the stakeholders in the organization without the firm acknowledging them to be so. The stakeholders in most organizations usually include shareholders, employees, customers, lenders, suppliers, local charities and interested group etc. 2.2.3 Stewardship Theory Andrew Keay (2017) define stewardship theory as the process where stewards protect and maximize shareholders wealth through improved firm’s performance, because by doing so, the8 stewards recognize, that his utility function is maximized. Stewardship theory refers more to the chief executive and manager as the main individual responsible for the stewardship function. Block (1996) define that the stewardship role is depicted with service to the firm over self-interest; he further established that organization and individual role can be easily achieved by honoring the stewardship relationship and treating followers like owners and partners. 2.3 Control Environment Oyoo Otieno Collins (2014) note that the control environment sets the tone of the organization by influencing the control consciousness of people. They further illustrated that control environment is viewed as the foundation for all the other components of internal control. Control environment factors include; integrity and ethical values of personnel responsible for creating, administering, and monitoring the controls, commitment and competence of persons performing assigned duties, board of directors or audit committees, management philosophy and operating and Organizational structure . Susana bleary (2015) also believes that these factors set a basis upon which the other internal control components can be built. They also provide a framework within which the other components operate. However, these assertions have not always held true, since management in organizations has always overridden these controls, the lack of mentoring has always led to collapse of controls. The independence of audit committee has largely been theoretical in most organizations. Boards of management have on several occasions had very little time for institution affairs, implying that their supervisory role has always been wanting. To trigger independence of auditors, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) Auditing Standards Board issued Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 78. This statement requires auditors to perform procedures on every audit to enable them to understand their client’s control environment including integrity and ethical values. In other words, auditors are specifically required to determine whether their clients’ ethical controls are operating. SAS No. 78 points out those ethical values and other elements of the control environment permeate the culture of an organization and affect the strength of all other controls. 2.4 Internal Audit and Financial Performance Eniola (2016) suggest that internal auditing is conducted as part of the monitoring activity of an organization. It involves appraising and investigating internal controls and the efficiency with which the various units of the organization are performing their assigned functions. An Internal9 auditor is normally interested in determining whether a department has a clear understanding of its assignment, is adequately staffed, properly safeguarding cash, maintains good records, inventory & other assets and cooperates harmoniously with other departments. Mwangi Mary (2013) describe that “Internal audit is an independent appraisal function established within an Organization to examine and evaluate its activities as a service to the organization”. According to Gupta (2010) “the scope of internal audit is determined by management”. This may however, impair the internal auditor’s objectivity and hampers his independence, it is quite hard to report negatively on someone who determines the scope of your work. In accordance to Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA-UK; 1997), independence is applicable to all categories of auditors. This means the opportunity granted to the auditors to report directly to the top authority. Mugo, 2009 also an internal auditor is an employee of the enterprise and cannot therefore be independent of it, he should be able to plan and carryout his work as he wishes and have access to the highest level of management. According to John ; Morris (2011) efficiency and effectiveness of internal audit procedures is not a simple task, successful operation is governed by the extent to which the element of internal audit procedures receive attention which include; expertise, independence and objectivity. Eniola (2016) further supplements that perception and ownership, organization and governance framework, legislation, improved professionalism and resources were identified as functions in the public sector derived from the effectiveness of the internal audit procedures. For purposes of this study, the research comprises four components of the internal control. These are; the control environment, internal audit function, risk management and control activities. John ; Morris (2011) drawing from Statements of Standard Auditing Practices No. 6 (SAP 6) defines Internal control as “the plan of organization and all the methods and procedures adopted by then management of an entity to assist in achieving management objectives of ensuring as far as practicable, the orderly and efficient conduct of its business, including adherence to management policies, the safeguarding of assets, prevention and detection of fraud and error, the accuracy and completeness of accounting records and the timely preparation of reliable financial information”. Internal control is used to describe how management assures that an organization does meet its managerial effectiveness, financial and other objectives.10 2.5 Value of internal control and risk management An organization’s system of internal control has a key role in the management of risks that are significant to the fulfillment of its business objectives. Institution’s objectives, its internal organization and the environment in which it operates are continually evolving and, as a result, the risks it faces are continually changing. A sound internal control system therefore depends on a regular evaluation of the nature and extent of the risks to which the institutions is exposed. The purpose of internal control is to help manage and control risk appropriately rather than to eliminate it (John, 2011). 2.6 Control Activities The last component of internal control according to John Kang’aru Kinyua is monitoring. This is aimed at ensuring that the internal controls continue to operate as intended. This can be achieved through ongoing monitoring or separate evaluations. Separate evaluations are non-routine monitoring activities such as period audits by the internal auditors. Generally, internal control is very important to the reliability of financial statements when the internal control system examined closely in timeliness. Internal control should be effective when examining design can extremely beneficial and is usually for organization management and widely to financial statements (Eniola, Omoniyi Jacob, 2016) at present, all kinds of business firms have used internal controls through the formation of policies to ensure a safeguarding assets and profitable business environment especially accounting policy, management policy, and operational policy. Hence, internal control should be on a regular basis review in all aspects of their institutions and insert internal controls that will strengthen the institutions and increase profitability. The meaning is internal controls are important to the institution’s financial trustworthiness for stakeholders, investors or everyone who is using information from financial reporting for decision. In this research, internal control effectiveness refers to a sufficient and appropriate internal control that firm’s system concerning of organizational specific policies, rule, and procedures designed. Besides, internal control effectiveness is important to the entity level of the firm especially it provides reliable financial information, safeguard assets and records, encourages adherence to prescribes policies and comply with regulatory agencies .The basic concepts of internal controls indicate that management must establish and maintain the entity’s controls by risk management efficiency, should provide a quality of compliance applied to all employees with potential of11 intra organization communication, and effective by a continuous monitoring adequacy (Reid ; Ash Eniola, 2015). John Kang’aru Kinyua (2016) mentions Control activities as another component of internal controls. Controls activities in an organization basically comprise; performance reviews (comparing actual performance with budgets, forecasts and prior period performance), information processing (necessary to check accuracy, completeness and authorization of transactions), physical controls (necessary to provide security over both records and other assets), and segregation of duties (where no one person should handle all aspects of a transaction from the beginning to the end). 2.7 Performance According to Oyoo (2014), performance is the ability to profitability, survive grow, operate efficiently and react to the environmental opportunities and threats. In agreement with this, Sollenberg & Anderson (1995) asserts that, performance is measured by how efficient the enterprise is in use of resources in achieving its objectives. Eniola (2016) believes that many firms’ low performance is the result of poorly performing assets (businesses). 2.7.1 Measures of Financial performance Anderson (2013) found out that, objective performance measures include indicators such as profit growth, revenue growth, return on capital employed. According to Gabriel Mwaniki Ngari(2017), appropriate performance measures are those which enable organizations to direct their actions towards achieving their strategic objectives Gabriel Mwaniki (2017) contends that, performance is measured by either subjective or objective criteria; arguments for subjective measures include difficulties with collecting qualitative performance data from small firms and with reliability of such data arising from differences in accounting methods used by firms. 2.7.1.1 Liquidity Stocks are more liquid. At least if a stock becomes worth less than you paid, you could deduct the loss on your taxes. During the depths of the recession, some homeowners found that they couldn’t sell their home for any amount of money. Businesses use liquidity ratios to measure their financial health. The three most important are: 1. Current Ratio – current assets divided by its current liabilities. It determines whether an institution could pay off all its short-term debt with the money it got from selling its assets.12 2. Quick Ratio – The same as the current ratio, only using just cash, accounts receivable and stocks/bonds. The business can’t count its inventory or prepaid expenses that can’ be easily sold. 3. Cash Ratio – Like the name implies, the institutions can only use it cash to pay off its debt. If the cash ratio is one or greater, that means the business will have no problem paying its debt, and has plenty of liquidity. 2.7.1.2 Accountability According to Hayes, 2015, Managers need regular financial reports so as to make informed decisions. Reporting (particularly financial reports) is one way through which managers make accountability for the resources entrusted to them. Emasu (2016) asserts that Accountability can be political, social or financial accountability. Accountability is increased and enhanced, ensuring that projects support the organizational strategy and that better services and greater satisfaction are provided to a customer. 2.7.1.3 Reporting Gramling et al. (2013), comprehensiveness of internal controls in addressing the achievement of objectives in the areas of operations, compliance and financial reporting with laws and regulations. They further note that “Internal control also includes the program for preparing, verifying and distributing to the various levels of management those current reports and analyses that enable executives to maintain control over the variety of activities and functions that are performed in a large organization” Corporate law requires a difference between ownership and management of an entity. Owners normally entrust their resources in the hands of managers. Managers are required to use the resources entrusted to them in the furtherance of the entity’s objectives. Managers normally report to the owners on the results of their stewardship for the resources entrusted to them through a medium called financial statements. 2.7.1.4 Survival According to Sintayehu (2013), strong performer institutions are those that can stay in business for a number of years and the ability of institutions to survive in business is an indicator of good financial performance. 2.8 Empirical Studies A study carried out by (Eniola, Omoniyi Jacob, 2016) examined the importance of a well-organized system of internal control in regard with micro finance institution. The sample was based on 25 credit institutions of Romania. The analysis of the survey answers revealed that the13 continuous collaboration, based on periodical meetings, between all structures of bank, characterizes an effective internal audit department. A study carried out by John Kang’aru Kinyua (2016) investigated the existence and adequacy of implemented security controls of computerized accounting information systems in the Kenya’s micro finance institution. The results of study revealed that the vast majority of Kenya’s micro finance institutions have adequate security controls in place. It can be concluded that effective internal controls include; the maintenance of proper accounting records, employee accountability, timely reporting on financial matters, risk mitigation by internal employees, effective communication among employees, efficient and effective utilization of financial and non-financial resources and information and communication technology in service delivery. They help to ensure that the organization is not unnecessarily exposed to avoidable financial risks and that financial information used within the business and for publication is reliable (Simiyu, 2014). They also contribute to the safeguarding of assets, including the prevention and detection of fraud and misuse of organizational resources (Musa, 2015). Mawanda (2008) conducted a research on the effects of internal control systems on financial performance in an institution of higher learning in Uganda. A questionnaire was used to collect data to achieve the objectives. A census was done from a population of 270 staff at Uganda Martyrs University. This research established a strong relationship between internal control and financial performance of the Uganda Martyrs University. The study concluded that internal control does function and that there is a significant relationship between internal control and financial performance in an Institution of higher learning institutions. 2.9 Research Gap There is a notable lack of research in developed as well as developing nations regarding the direct association of internal controls and institutions financial performance. More specifically, among these few studies is the one conducted by Al-Matari et al. (2012) who investigated the association between the board characteristics and performance of Kuwaiti institutions. They called for future researchers to examine the relation between internal controls and institutions performance, both directly and indirectly, or in light of a moderating effect.14 CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY These parts of the thesis focused on the methodology that used to collect data and analyze it. It includes the research design, sample size, sampling frame, data sources, collection and procedure, reliability tests for data collection instruments, data Analysis and presentation and matters regarding ethics in collection of data. 3.1 Research Design A research design is a plan of research to be used to answer the research objectives and research questions. It is the framework or structure to solve a specific problem. It gives direction and systematizes the research. It refers to the process that the investigator will follow from the inception to completion of the study. The study conducted by using both correlation and descriptive research design. Descriptive research design is a process of collecting data in order to test hypothesis or to answer questions concerning the current status of the subjects in the study. A descriptive research determines and reports the way things are. As to the descriptive studies, they are designed to obtain data that describe the characteristics of the topic of interest in the research. In descriptive research, the research problem is structured and well understood. The researcher begins with the idea that there might be a relationship between two variables. The study then involved in developing causal explanations. Causal explanations argue that phenomenon Y (Financial performance) is affected by factor X (internal control). This design is chosen because it applied closely to the research objectives of this study. 3.2 Sampling Design Sample design deals with study population, population size, sample frame and sampling technique. Sampling is a technique of selecting a suitable sample for the purpose determining parameters of the whole population. Population is the list of elements from which the sample may be drawn (John, 2015).A sample is drawn to overcome the constraints of covering the entire population with the intent of generalizing the findings to the entire population. 3.2.1 Study Population A population study is a study of a group of individuals taken from the general population who share a common characteristic. In this study the population is Omo micro finance institutions in Wolaita Zone and the result obtained from this study used as a reference for all the other micro finance institutions which is working in the industry.15 3.2.2 Population Size The population is the aggregate or collection of units about which the survey is conducted. Units can refer to people, households, schools, hospitals, businesses etc. There are two different populations that a survey is concerned with. We have a target population, the group of units about which information is wanted, and a survey population, the units that we are able to survey. The target population is the eight registered deposit taking and lending Omo micro finance institutions in Wolaita Zone which are: Omo micro finance institution ,Sodo Area branch, Areka branch, Damot Gale branch, Damot woyde branch, Boloso Sore branch, Duguna Fango branch, Boditiy branch and Damot Pulasa branch, which their services towards the majorly poor population. The study targeted one top- level manager, one mid-level manager and five staff members from each of the eight Omo Micro-Finance institutions thus bringing the entire sample size to 56 respondents. 3.2.3 Sampling frame and Sampling technique The convenience sampling technique used to choose Eight Micro-finance institutions from the target population. Its main objective is to produce a sample that can be logically assumed to be representative of the population. This is done because of their ease of access. Convenience sampling techniques is used to select the one top-level manager, one mid-level manager and five staff members from each Omo Micro-Finance institutions. 3.3 Data sources, collection and procedure The study got data from primary sources. Primary data was got from questionnaires. A questionnaire deal with elite respondents for that matter this questionnaire chosen simply and the researcher give sufficient time to respondents to respond the questions of the study. 3.4 Reliability Tests for Data collection Instruments Validity of research was determined by the researcher through seek opinions in the field of study especially the researcher advisor and lecturers in the department of Accounting and finance. The coefficient alpha or Cronbach?s alpha was used as a measure of internal reliability of the data collection instruments. 3.5 Data Analysis and Presentation Data were prepared to eliminate unusual circumstances; verify and reject wrong responses and contradictory data from unrelated questions. Blanks and non-responses were being ignored. The data then coded and fed into a computer program (the Statistical Package for social science, SPSS) for easy analysis and interpretation of results.16 Descriptive statistics such as frequency distributions, percentages and frequency tables was used to summarize and relate variables which were attained from the study. The study adopted regression and correlation analysis. Regression analysis was used to come up with the model expressing the hypothesized relationship between the independent variables (Control environment, Internal Audit, Risk management and Control Activities.) and the dependent variable (financial performance of Omo micro finance institutions in Wolaita zone). Specifically the regression model was: FP= ?0+ ?1X1 +? FP= ?0+ ?2X2+ +? FP= ?0+ ?3X3+ ? FP= ?0+ ?4X4 +? FP= ?0+ ?1X1+ ?2X2+ ?3X3+ ?4X4+? Where ?0, ?1, ?2, ?3, and ?4 are regression co-efficient FP-Financial performance measured by ROE ?0 – Intercepts of equation ?1 – Coefficients of variables X1- Control Environment X2-Internal Audit function X3-Risk Management control X4-Internal Control Activities ?o – Constant ?- Error term 3.6 Research Ethics Ethical consideration is a major part of this research process. First the researcher gets authorization from the top management of the Omo Micro-finance Institutions. The researcher structures the questionnaires in such a way that there is no mention of the Interviewee’s name. A statement as to the strict confidentiality with which data held expressly stated in the questionnaire. Ethical considerations are also taking care of by the researcher briefing the respondents as to the purpose of the research, their relevance in the research process, and expectations from them.17 CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Introduction The study adopted statistical packages for social sciences approaches to examine the internal control effect on financial performance of Omo micro finance institutions in Ethiopia. To descriptive statistics, the reliability among the multiple measures of the variables that comprise this study was measured using Cronbach?s alpha coefficient generated by statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS). Cronbach?s alpha is a measure of consistency and checks if the questions of the questionnaire were understood and if the data are minimally reliable. 4.2 Data Reliability The coefficient alpha is an appropriate measure of variance attributable to subjects and variance attributable to the interaction between subjects and items (Zikmund et al., 2010). Accordingly Cronbach?s alpha was used as a measure of internal reliability. In terms of the specific testing of internal reliability, the following scores obtained in terms of the testing of the Cronbach?s alphas are indicated in table 4.1. Table 4.1: Reliability statistics Variable Cronbach”s Alpha= =Number of items =Internal control environment= 0.718==12=Internal audit function= 0.71R= P=Risk management= 0.714= P==Control activities= 0.72M==P=Source: computation through spss output, 2018 Thus the values in Table 4.1 internal control environment ? = 0.718, internal audit function ? = 0.715, risk management ? =0.714, control activities ? = 0.720, are sufficient confirmation of data reliability for the independent variables. A Cronbach?s alpha of 0.60 as a minimum level is acceptable (Zikmund et al., 2010). 4.3 Profile of Respondents 4.3.1 Gender Distribution The gender of the respondents was investigated. Majority (85.7%) of the respondents were male while the rest (14.3%) of the respondents were female as shown in table 4.2.The statistics show18 that majority of employees in charge of internal control in Omo micro finance institutions are Male. The distribution however represents unfair gender balancing. Table 4.2 Distribution of Respondents by Gender Gender of the respondent Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Male 48 85.7 85.7 85.7 Female 8 14.3 14.3 100.0 Total 56 100.0 100.0 Source: computation through spss output, 2018 4.3.2 Branch Distribution of the Respondents The distribution of respondent per branches as shown in the table 4.3 shows that there is proper representation of Omo micro finance institutions in Wolaita zone. Table 4.3 Branch Distribution of the Respondents Name of institution Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent sodo zuria branch 7 12.5 12.5 12.5 Areka area branch 7 12.5 12.5 25.0 Damot gale branch 7 12.5 12.5 37.5 Damot woyde branch 7 12.5 12.5 50.0 Boloso sore branch 7 12.5 12.5 62.5 Duguna fango branch 7 12.5 12.5 75.0 Boditiy branch 7 12.5 12.5 87.5 Damot Pulasa branch 7 12.5 12.5 100.0 Total 56 100.0 100.0 Source: computation through spss output, 2018 4.3.3 Position held in the institution The analysis results in table 4.4 show that majority of respondents in this study are Agent 28.6%, followed by manager 14.3%, chief cashier 14.3%, accountant14.3%, auditor 14.3%, and Operation officer 14.3%.From the above description, it can be revealed that the majority of the19 respondents in this study are those directly involved the implementation of the internal control. Therefore, their responses are deemed to reflect what actually takes place in the institutions. Table 4.4 Position held in the organization Position of respondent Position Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Manager 8 14.3 14.3 14.3 Chief Cashier 8 14.3 14.3 28.6 Accountant 8 14.3 14.3 42.9 Auditor 8 14.3 14.3 57.1 Agent 16 28.6 28.6 85.7 Operation officer 8 14.3 14.3 100.0 Total 56 100.0 100.0 Source: computation through spss output, 2018 4.3.4 Educational background Table 4.5 indicated that, none of the respondents had only Primary education, 23.2% college diploma holders, 76.8% were university graduates with degree. This shows that most of the respondents had attained the minimum level of education to participate towards the achievement of institutional objectives and better performances in the Microfinance institutions. Table 4.5 Highest Level of Education Attained Educational background Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Diploma 13 23.2 23.2 23.2 Degree 43 76.8 76.8 100.0 Total 56 100.0 100.0 Source: computation through spss output, 2018 4.3.4 Work experience of respondent. To investigate the number of years each respondent had worked in the institution 25% of the respondents had a working experience between 6 to 10 years, 5.4% had 11 to 15 years, and 69.6 % had below 5 years. This means that the respondents had satisfactory working experience with20 the institutions and possess the necessary knowledge and information which was considered useful for this study. Table 4.6; Work experience of respondent. Work experience of respondent Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Below 5 years 39 69.6 69.6 69.6 6-10 years 14 25.0 25.0 94.6 11-15 years 3 5.4 5.4 100.0 Total 56 100.0 100.0 Source: computation through spss output, 2018 4.4 Descriptive Analysis 4.4.1 Descriptive Analysis on Internal Control Environment 4.4.1.1 Integrity and Ethical Values The variables for integrity and ethical values in this study were entity policies (on acceptable business practices, conflict of interest and codes of conduct), Employee job descriptions, including specific duties, reporting responsibilities, and constraints are clearly established and effectively communicated to the employees. The study seek to investigate if the institution has appropriate entity policies regarding such matters as acceptable business practices, conflict of interest and codes of conduct and if they were adequately communicated. The questions required the respondents to choose the following: strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree and strongly agree. The result indicated that majority (76.8%) of the respondents agreed that their institution have appropriate entity policies regarding such matters as acceptable business practices, conflicts of interest, and codes of conduct and that they were adequately communicated, while 5.4% strongly agreed, 16.1% were neutral, 1.8% of the respondents strongly disagreed that their institution have appropriate entity policies. The results revealed by Table 4.7 respondents that their institution have appropriate entity policies regarding such matters as acceptable business practices, conflicts of interest, and codes of conduct and that they were adequately communicated as reflected by the mean value of 3.86 which is tending towards the maximum point of 5. However, a significant standard deviation of 0.520 suggests varied responses regarding acceptable business practices, conflicts of interest, and codes of conduct. Further the21 study sought opinion on whether employee job descriptions, including specific duties, reporting responsibilities, and constraints are clearly established and effectively communicated to the employees. Majority (71.4%) of the respondents agreed, 16.1% were neutral while 8.9 % strongly agreed and 1.8% disagreed and 1.8% of the respondents strongly disagreed. The results are summarized in table 4.7 In Table 4.7 , respondents provided their understanding in regard to employee job descriptions, including specific duties, reporting responsibilities, and constraints are clearly established and effectively communicated to the employees and their perceptions show mean of 3.84, implying that they agree with the statement. Thus, a standard deviation of 0.682 suggests significant differences in responses as regards employee job descriptions, including specific duties, reporting responsibilities, and constraints are clearly established and effectively communicated to the employees. The study agree with COSO (2013) that outlines control environment factors to include the integrity, ethical values and competence of the entity’s people; management’s philosophy and operating style; the way management assigns authority and responsibility, and organizes and develops its people; and the attention and direction provided by the board of directors. Related with the above results it can be concluded that most Omo micro finance institutions in Wolaita zone have appropriate entity policies on business practices, conflict of interest and code of conduct and that they are adequately communicated. The study also confirms that management of those institutions demonstrates there is an appropriate employee job description, including specific duties, reporting responsibilities, and constraints are clearly established and effectively communicated to the employees. This confirms that most Omo micro finance institutions in Wolaita zone have an integrity and ethical value which is a clear indication of good internal control environment. 4.4.1.2 Commitment to Competence The commitment to competence variables considered in this study was management determination of the employee level of knowledge and skills required to perform a job and adequacy of employee compensation to attract qualified individuals. The result of the finding indicated that as to the opinion whether Management determines the level of knowledge and skills needed to perform a particular job and if this information is used in the hiring process, majority (75%) of the respondents agreed, 16.1% were neutral while 7.1% strongly agreed and a few 1.8% disagreed. The results of the survey as revealed by Table 4.7 suggest that Management determines the level of knowledge and skills needed to perform a particular job and if this22 information is used in the hiring process. This is evident when the mean of respondents as computed by the system is well above the average (i.e. 3.88). Nevertheless, the corresponding standard deviation of 0.541 suggests that respondents had a variation in responses. Further opinion on whether the institutions adequately compensates employees in order to attract qualified individuals, most (71.4%) of the respondents agreed while 19.6% neutral, 5.4% strongly agreed while a few (1.8%) disagreed and (1.8%) strongly disagreed. The study (as reflected in table 4.2.3) found that the respondents seem to agree that the Institution has an accounting and financial management system in place with a mean value of 3.77 which appears to be close to the maximum rank of 5. This shows that they generally agree about institutions adequately compensates employees in order to attract qualified individuals. However, the corresponding standard deviation also revealed a significant value of 0.660. This also shows that there is a clear variation in the responses provided by the respondents. The results are summarized in table 4.7 The result agrees with the finding by (Eniola, Omoniyi Jacob, 2016) that Control environment factors include: Integrity and ethical values; the commitment to competence; leadership philosophy and operating style; and the way management assigns authority and responsibility, and organizes and develops its people. The findings trying to confirm that employees in institutions listed in Wolaita zone have clear job descriptions and that management determines the level of knowledge and skill needed to perform a particular job. The institutions adequately compensate their employees and have performance evaluation mechanism in place. This confirms that management of most institutions in Wolaita zone is committed to competence, a clear indication of existence of good internal control environment. This is expected to have positive impact on financial performance. 4.4.1.3 Management Philosophy and Operating Style On management philosophy and operating style, the study sought to investigate whether management and operating decisions were dominated by a few individual and if management did analysis of risks before making a decision that affect achievement of the institutions objective. The results as indicated in table 4.7, were majority (76.8%) of the respondents agreed that management and operating decisions are not dominated by a few individuals with 16.1% neutral while a few 5.4% strongly agreed and 1.8% was disagreed. From the table 4.7 above, respondents seemed to agree that management and operating decisions were dominated by a few individual and if management did analysis of risks before making a decision that affect23 achievement of the institutions objective as reflected by the mean value of 3.86 which is tending towards the maximum point of 5. However, a significant standard deviation of 0.520 suggests varied responses. As to whether Management analyses the risks and potential benefits of a venture before making a decision most (73.2%) of the respondents agreed that Management analyses the risks and potential benefits of a venture before a decision is made while 19.6% neutral and 5.4% remained strongly agreed. A few (1.8%) disagreed. In Table 4.7 above, respondents provided their understanding in regard to Management analyses the risks and potential benefits of a venture before making a decision and their perceptions show mean of 3.82, implying that they agree with the statement. A standard deviation of 0.543 suggests significant differences in responses as regards Management analyses the risks and potential benefits of a venture before making a decision. The results are summarized in table 4.7 The results of the finding by (Eniola, 2016) that Control environment factors include: Integrity and ethical values; the commitment to competence; leadership philosophy and operating style; and the way management assigns authority and responsibility, and organizes and develops its people. The findings confirm that management decisions in Omo micro finance institutions in Wolaita zone are not dominated by a few individuals and that analysis of risk and potential benefits of a venture is done before making a decision. This indicate the presence of a positive management philosophy and style in Omo micro finance institutions in Wolaita zone, an indication of existence of good internal control environment. 4.4.1.4 Organizational Structure Related with the organizational structure, the study sought to investigate if the organization of the institutions was clearly defined in terms of line of authority and responsibility, the organizational structure was appropriate for the size and complexity of the entity. Most (76.8%) of the respondents agreed that organization of the institution is clearly defined in terms of lines of authority and responsibility, whereas 5.4% strongly agreed,16.1% neutral and 1.8% disagree. The analysis results in table 4.7 reveals that to some extent, organization of the institution is clearly defined in terms of lines of authority and responsibility as reflected by a mean value above average, 3.86. However, even the 56 of the respondents seemed to have varied responses regarding organization of the institution is clearly defined in terms of lines of authority and responsibility as revealed by a standard deviation of 0.520.24 Upholding ethical values in management decisions is in line As to whether the institutional structure was appropriate for the size and complexity of the institutions, most (69.6%) of the respondents agreed that institutional structure was appropriate for the size and complexity of the entity while 8.9% neutral and 14.3% strongly agreed while 5.4% of the respondents were disagreed and 1.8% of the respondents were strongly disagreed. The analysis results in table 4.7 reveals that to some extent, organizational structure was appropriate for the size and complexity of the entity as reflected by a mean value above average, 3.98. However, even the 57 of the respondents seemed to have varied responses regarding organizational structure was appropriate for the size and complexity of the entity as revealed by a standard deviation of 0.587. The results are summarized in table 4.7 The results confirm that organization structure of Omo micro finance institutions in Wolaita zone is clearly defined in terms of lines of authority and responsibility. The findings also confirm that the organization structure for most of the institutions is appropriate for the size and complexity. This is a clear indication of existence of good internal control environment. 4.4.1.5 Assignment of Authority and Responsibility Regarding assignment of authority and responsibility, the study was to investigate if the institutions had clear assignment of responsibilities and delegation of authorities and if employees had job responsibilities including specific duties, reporting relationship clearly established and communicated. The findings as summarized in table 4.7, were (62.5%) of the respondents agreed that there was clear assignment of responsibility and delegation of authority to deal with such matters as organizational goals and objectives, operating functions, and regulatory requirements, whereas 21.4% strongly agreed while 12.5% neutral, 3.6% were disagreed. The analysis of results in Table 4.7 reveal a mean of 3.82, implying that the respondents were in agreement in regard to there was clear assignment of responsibility and delegation of authority to deal with such matters as organizational goals and objectives, operating functions, and regulatory requirements. However, a standard deviation of 0.636 reveals a significant variation in the opinions. Further opinion was collected on whether all employees have job responsibilities, including specific duties, reporting relationships clearly established and communicated, the results indicated majority (67.9%) of the respondents agreed that employees have job responsibilities, including specific duties, reporting relationships clearly established and communicated, 3.6% neutral, 25% strongly agreed, also 1.8% were disagreed and 1.8% strongly disagreed. The results of the survey as reflected in Table 4.7 revealed that the employees have25 job responsibilities, including specific duties, reporting relationships clearly established and communicated as shown by a mean of 3.82, even though there were variations in responses to this test as revealed by the standard deviation of 0.636. The findings approved that employees of Omo micro finance institutions in Wolaita zone have clear assignment of responsibility and delegation of authority, an indication of existence of good internal control environment. 4.4.1.6. Human Resource Policy and Practices For human resource policy and practices, the study investigate if all personnel including key managers possess adequate knowledge and experience to discharge their responsibilities, if turnover of key personnel is low and if there is management commitment to competence to ensure that personnel receive adequate training to perform their duties. In relation to opinion, majority (62.5 %) of the respondents agreed that personnel including key managers possess adequate knowledge and experience to discharge their responsibilities, 10.7% neutral while 23.2% were strongly agreeing and 3.6% disagreed. In Table 4.7 above, respondents provided their understanding in regard to personnel including key managers possess adequate knowledge and experience to discharge their responsibilities and their perceptions show mean of 3.89, implying that they agree with the statement. A standard deviation of 0.528 suggests significant differences in responses as regards personnel including key managers possess adequate knowledge and experience to discharge their responsibilities. Management’s monitoring of implementation of internal control Finally on whether management has shown commitment to competence and ensured that personnel receive adequate training to perform their duties, most (53.6%) of the respondents agreed that management has shown commitment to competence and ensured that personnel receive adequate training to perform their duties while 28.6% strongly agreed. 12.5% of the respondents were neutral while a few 5.4% disagreed. From the table 4.7 above, respondents seemed to agree that management has shown commitment to competence and ensured that personnel receive adequate training to perform their duties as reflected by the mean value of 3.91 which is tending towards the maximum point of 5. However, a significant standard deviation of 0.695 suggests varied responses. The results are summarized in table 4.7 The control environment provides discipline and structure for the achievement of the primary objectives of internal control. The results confirm that most Omo micro finance institutions have26 good human resource policies and practices which are assurance to existence of good internal control environment.27 Table 4.7 Respondents’ Opinion on Internal Control Environment. __________________________________________________________________________________ Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree Respondents opinion Mean Std. Deviation __________________________________________________________________________________ The institution has policies regarding acceptable business practices, conflicts of interest, 0% 1.8% 16.1% 76.8% 5.4% 3.86 .520 and codes of conduct and they adequately communicated __________________________________________________________________________________ Employee job descriptions, including specific duties, reporting responsibilities, and 1.8% 1.8% 16.1% 71.4% 8.9% 3.84 .682 constraints are clearly established and effectively communicated to the employees __________________________________________________________________________________ Management determines the level of knowledge and skills needed to perform a particular job and this 0% 1.8% 16.1% 75% 7.1% 3.88 .541 information is used in the hiring process __________________________________________________________________________________ The institution adequately compensates employees in order to attract qualified individuals 1.8% 1.8% 19.6% 71.4% 5.4% 3.77 .660 __________________________________________________________________________________ Management and operating decisions are not dominated by a few individuals 0% 1.8% 16.1% 76.8% 5.4% 3.86 .520 __________________________________________________________________________________ Management analyses the risks and potential benefits of a venture before 0% 1.8% 19.6% 73.2% 5.4% 3.82 .543 making a decision The organization of the institution is clearly defined in terms of lines of 0% 1.8% 16.1% 76.8% 5.4% 3.86 .520 authority and responsibility The institutions structure appropriate for the Size and complexity of the entity 0% 1.8% 12.5% 71.4% 14.3% 3.98 .587 There is clear assignment of responsibility28 The organization of the institution is clearly defined in terms of lines 0% 1.8% 16.1% 76.8% 5.4% 3.86 .520 of authority and responsibility ______________________________________________________________________________ The institutions structure Appropriate or the size and 1.8% 5.4% 8.9% 69.6% 14.3% 3.98 .587 complexity of the entity ______________________________________________________________________________ There is clear assignment of responsibility and delegation of authority to deal with 0% 3.6% 12.5% 62.5% 21.4 % 3.82 .636 organizational goals and objectives, operating functions, and regulatory requirements ______________________________________________________________________________ All employees have job responsibilities, including specific duties, reporting 1.8% 1.8% 3.6% 67.9% 25% 3.82 .636 relationships clearly established and communicated ___________________________________________________________________________________ All personnel, including key managers, possess adequate knowledge and 0% 3.6% 10.7% 62.5% 23.2% 3.89 .528 experience to discharge their responsibilities ___________________________________________________________________________________ Management has shown commitment to competence and ensured that 0% 5.4% 12.5% 53.6% 28.6% 3.91 .695 receive adequate training to personnel perform their duties. _____________________________________________________________________________ Source: computation through spss output, 2018 4.4.2 Descriptive Analysis on Internal Audit Function. 4.4.2.1 Monitoring and Evaluation Related with monitoring and evaluation, the study investigates the institutions weather internal audit department has developed manual that guide on planning monitoring and evaluation. The29 result as shown in table 4.8, indicated that most (62.5%) of the respondents agreed that internal audit unit in the institution has developed an internal audit manual that guides audit operations such as planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation, 3.6% strongly agreed while 8.9% strongly disagreed,3.6% disagreed and 21.4% were neutral. 4.4.2.2 Fraud Prevention, Detection and Control On fraud prevention, detection and control, the study sought to investigate if internal audit plays a major role in fraud detection and prevention. The result as shown in table in table 4.8 indicates opinion on whether internal audit department in the institution plays a major role in fraud detection and prevention, most (50%) of the respondents agreed that internal audit department in the institution plays a major role in fraud detection and prevention, while 7.1% strongly agreed and 19.6% remained neutral.10.7% and 12.5 % strongly disagreed and disagreed respectively. The results agree with the findings by Alexander Morris (2015) that organizations with effective and efficient internal audit function are able to detect fraud more than those that have not such a function within their organizations. The result confirms that Omo micro finance institutions in Wolaita zone have internal audit function that play the role of fraud detection, prevention and control, an indication existence of good internal control. 4.4.2.3 Reporting The study sought to investigate whether the head of internal audit is a member of the senior team in the institution. The results as shown in table 4.8 were as follow. Opinion as to whether the head of the internal audit function is a member of the senior management team in the institution and reports to the chief executive officer, 62.5% of respondents agreed that the head of the internal audit function is a member of the senior management team in the institution, 3.6% strongly agreed, 10.7% were neutral while 14.3% and 8.9% disagreed and strongly disagreed respectively. The results are summarized in table 4.8 It agrees with the findings by Al Matarneh (2011) that internal audit encompasses oversight activities taken by the board of directors and audit committees to make sure that the financial reporting process is credible. The findings show that Omo micro finance institution in Wolaita zone have internal audit department which plays the role of objective and independent assurance. This is an indication of existence of good internal control in Omo micro finance institution in Wolaita zone.30 Table 4.8 Respondents’ Opinion on Internal Audit Function ____________________________________________________________________________ Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree Respondents opinion Mean Std. Deviation __________________________________________________________________ The internal audit unit in the institution has developed an internal audit manual that guides audit operations such as 8.9% 3.6% 21%.4 62.5% 3.6% 3.68 .876 planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation ____________________________________________________________________________________ The internal audit unit in the institution plays a major role in fraud detection 10.7% 12.5% 19.6% 50% 7.1% 3.73 .944 and prevention ____________________________________________________________________________________ The head of the internal audit function is a member of the senior management 8.9% 14.3% 10.7% 62.5% 3.6% 3.61 .908 team in the institution and reports to the CEO _____________________________________________________________________________ Source: computation through spss output, 2018 4.4.3 Descriptive Analysis on Risk Management. 4.4.3.1 Risk Identification In relation to risk identification the study sought to establish if the institution had a monitoring system that identifies potential risks. The results as shown in table 4.9 indicates that majority (60.7%) of the respondent agreed that the institution has a monitoring system that identifies potential risks, 3.6% strongly agreed while 19.6% were neutral. The remaining 7.1% and 8.9% disagreed and strongly disagreed respectively. The results confirm that Omo micro finance institution in Wolaita zone have well documented policies on risks and management encourage reporting of events in order to identify risk, an indication of existence of good internal control.31 4.4.3.2 Risk Evaluation Based on risk evaluation the study sought to investigate if the institution had adequate capacity to risk assessment. The results as shown in table 4.9 below indicates that majority (48.2%) of the respondents agreed that their institution had adequate capacity to perform risk assessment, 7.1% strongly agreed, 19.6% were neutral while 14.3% disagreed and 10.7% strongly disagreed. The results support the finding by Gabriel Mwaniki (2017) that the survival and success of a financial organization depends critically on the efficiency of managing these risks. The results confirm that most Omo micro finance institution in Wolaita zone adequately evaluates and records the risk an indication of good internal control. 4.4.3.3 Risk Mitigation Respondents opinion on whether the institutions has adequately implemented any inspection plans to reduce the inherent risks and if those plans which are periodically revised, 62.5% of respondent agreed while 1.8% strongly agreed. 12.5% of the respondents were neutral while 14.3% disagreed and 8.9% strongly disagreed. The results are summarized in table 4.9 The results support the findings Anderson (2014) who observed good risk management is highly relevant in providing better returns to the shareholders. The results confirm that most Omo micro finance institution in Wolaita zone in their operations enterprise risk management an indication of existence of good internal control. Table 4.9 Respondents’ Opinion on Risk Management __________________________________________________________________ Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree Respondents opinion Mean Std. Deviation __________________________________________________________________ The institution has a monitoring System that identifies potential risks 8.9% 7.1% 19.6% 60.7% 3.6% 3.64 .903 _____________________________________________________________________________________ There is adequate capacity to perform risk assessment in my institution 10.7% 14.3% 19.6% 48.2% 7.1% 3.68 .956 ____________________________________________________________________________________ The institution has adequately32 implemented any inspection plans 8.9% 14.3% 12.5% 62.5% 1.8% 3.57 .931 to reduce the inherent risks which are periodically revised ____________________________________________________________________________________ Source: computation through spss output, 2018 4.4.4 Descriptive Analysis on Control Activities 4.4.4.1 Information and Communication Respondent’s opinion regarding whether the institution has well established information and communication channels, most 60.7% of the respondents agreed, 3.6% strongly agreed while 23.2% were neutral, 3.6% disagreed and 8.9% strongly disagreed. On other hand the institution utilizes „suggestion boxes? for obtaining information that is sensitive and confidential for the effective management of the institution, 48.2% of the respondent agreed, 7.1% strongly agreed while 21.4% were neutral, 12.5% of the respondents disagreed and a few (10.7%) strongly disagreed. The results are shown in table 4.10. The result confirms that Omo micro finance institutions in Wolaita zone have well defined channels of information and communication, an indication of good internal control. 4.4.4.2 Policies and Procedure On policies and procedure whether the institution has developed effective policies and procedures on information and communication,60.7% of the respondent agreed, 3.6% strongly agreed,12.5% were neutral while 14.3% disagreed and 8.9% strongly disagreed. The results are shown in table 4.10 The results concur with the finding of John Davis (2014) that Control activities involve two elements: a policy establishing what should be done and procedures to affect the policy. All policies must be implemented thoughtfully, conscientiously and consistently to achieve the desired objectives. The results confirm that most Omo micro finance institutions in Wolaita zone have put in policies and procedure that assist in running their operations an indication of existence good internal control.33 Table 4.10 Respondents’ Opinion on Control Activities __________________________________________________________________ Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree Respondents opinion Mean Std. Deviation __________________________________________________________________ The institution has well established information and communication 8.9% 3.6% 23.2% 60.7% 3.6% 3.68 .876 channels ____________________________________________________________________________________ The institution utilizes suggestion boxes for obtaining information that 10.7% 12.5% 21.4% 48.2% 7.1% 3.68 .956 is sensitive and confidential for the effective management ____________________________________________________________________________________ The institution has developed effective policies and procedures 8.9% 14.3% 12.5% 60.7% 3.6% 3.61 .867 on information and communication. _____________________________________________________________________________ Source: computation through spss output, 2018 4.4.5 Descriptive Analysis on Financial Performance Respondent’s opinion on Profitability in institution over the last 5 years has been increasing steadily and the results were 57.1% of the respondents agreed, 16.1% strongly agreed and 16.1% were indifferent. The balance 7.1% and 3.6% disagreed and strongly disagreed respectively. On whether the Institution Accounting system adequately identifies the income and expenditure, majority 53.6% agreed followed by 21.4% indifferent. 16.1% of the respondent were strongly agreed, 7.1% disagreed while 1.8% strongly disagreed. Opinion on whether the institution has enough cash to meet its obligations effectively, 48.2% of the respondents agreed, 10.7% strongly agreed and majority 30.4% were indifferent. The balance 8.9 % and 1.8% of the respondents disagreed and strongly disagreed respectively. The results are summarized in table 4.1134 Table 4.11 Respondents’ Opinion on Financial Performance __________________________________________________________________ Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree Respondents opinion Mean Std. Deviation _____________________________________________________________________________ Profitability in institution over the last 5 years has been 3.6% 7.1% 16.1% 57.1% 16.1% 3.79 .909 increasing steadily _____________________________________________________________________________ The Institution Accounting system adequately identifies 1.8% 7.1% 21.4% 53.6% 16.1% 3.79 .909 the income and expenditure _____________________________________________________________________________ The institution has enough cash to meet its obligations 1.8% 8.9% 30.4% 48.2% 10.7% 3.79 .909 effectively ________________________________________________________________________________________ Source: computation through spss output, 2018 4.5 Relationship between Internal Control and financial performance This section answers objective of the research. The relationship between internal controls and financial performance in micro finance institutions in Ethiopia, the case of 0mo micro finance institutions in Wolaita zone was investigated using control environment, internal audit function, Risk management and control activities as dimensions for internal control while Profitability, liquidity and accountability were for financial performance.35 Table 4.12: Pearson’s Correlation analysis Correlation Matrix 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Control environment 1 Internal Audit 0.266** 1 Risk Management 0.387** 0.179** 1 Control Activities 0.299** 0.389** 0.276** 1 Profitability 0.216** 0.148** 0.373** 0.386** 1 Accountability 0.213** 0.086** 0.362** 0.347** 0.208** 1 Liquidity 0.197** 0.083** 0.332** 0.372** 0.216** 0.162** 1 ** ?=0.01 (correlation is significant at 0.01 level (2-tailed) Source: computation through spss output, 2018 The correlation describe the relationship between internal Controls measured by control environment, internal audit, Risk management and control activities against financial performance, measured by liquidity, Accountability and Profitability. The results show that all the variables relate positively. 4.5.1 Control environment and financial performance Table 4.12 indicate that the control environment is positively related to Profitability with r = 0.216 and standard error, p < 0.01, the control environment is positively related with accountability with r = 0.213 and standard error, p < 0.01, and the control environment is positively related to Liquidity with r = 0.197 and p < 0.01. The results suggests that the Control environment is related with financial performance therefore hypothesis one (H1), there is a relationship between the control environment and financial performance of micro finance institutions is accepted.36 4.5.2 Internal audit and financial performance. The results in table 4.12 indicate a positive relationship between internal audit and Profitability with r = 0.148 and p < 0.01, internal audit is positively related to accountability with r = 0.086 and p < 0.01, and positively related to liquidity with r = 0.083 and p < 0.01.Since there is a positive relationship between the internal audit function and financial performance; liquidity, accountability and profitability, hypothesis two (H2); an effective internal audit function is related with the financial performance of micro finance institutions is accepted. 4.5.3 Risk management and financial performance Table 4.12 shows that the risk management is positively related to profitability with r = 0.373 and standard error, p < 0.01, the risk management is positively related with accountability with r = 0.362 and standard error, p < 0.01, and the risk management is positively related to liquidity with r = 0.332 and p < 0.01. The results suggests that the Control environment is related with financial performance and therefore hypothesis three (H3), there is a relationship between the risk management and financial performance of micro finance institutions is accepted. 4.5.4 Internal Control activities and financial performance Results in table 4.12 indicate a positive relationship between internal control activities with Profitability, r = 0.386 with a standard error, p < 0.01. Internal control activities further relate positively with accountability, r = 0.347 with a standard error, p< 0.01 and with liquidity, r = 0.372 with a standard error, p < 0.01. Therefore, internal control activities affect financial performance, thus hypothesis four (H4), Functionality of internal control activities and financial performance of micro finance institutions is accepted. 4.6 Inferential Analysis Regression analysis was done to establish the statistical significance relationship between the independent variables (internal control environment, internal audit function, risk management and control activities) on the dependent variable which was financial performance. According to Ehrhardt (2013), Regression Analysis is a statistical process of estimating the relationship between variables. Regression analysis helps in generating equation that describes the statistics relationship between variables. The regression analysis results were presented using a scatter plot diagram, regression model summary tables, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) table and beta coefficients tables.37 4.6.1 Regression Analysis on Internal Control Environment versus Financial Performance H1: There is significant relationship between internal control environment and financial performance. Regression analysis was conducted to determine the significance of the relationship of internal control environment against financial performance. Figure 4.1 illustrates scatter plot diagram of internal control environment versus financial performance. The Figure 4.1 presents that all the points of an estimate line that is increasingly positively upwards. This implies that there is a positive linear relationship between internal control environment and financial performance. Figure 4.1 Regression Model of Internal Control Environment on Financial Performance Observed Cum Prob Source: computation through spss output, 2018 The Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results as shown in Table 4.12 further confirms that the model fit is appropriate for this data since p-value of 0.001 which is less than 0.05. This implies that there is a significant linear relationship between internal control environment and financial performance.38 Table 4.14: Internal Control Environment and Financial Performance Coefficient __________________________________________________________________ Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients ___________________________________________________________________ B Std. Error Beta t Sig. (Constant) 2.703 1.067 2.534 .001a Internal Control 0.216 0 .040 0 .320 3.921 .001a Environment ___________________________________________________________________ a. Dependent Variable: financial performance Source: computation through spss output, 2018 Table 4.13: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for Internal Control Environment ANOVA Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 16.751 6 2.792 4.309 .001a Residual 31.749 49 .648 Total 48.500 55 a. Predictors: (Constant): Internal Control Environment. Source: computation through spss output, 2018 The results further indicate that internal control environment have positive and significant effects on financial performance (Table 4.14). The fitted model FP = 2.703+0.216*X1. This implies that a unit change in internal control environment will increase financial performance by the rate of 0.216. Even when internal control environment is non-existence, financial performance is still positive at 2.703 indicating that there are other drivers of financial performance including internal audit, risk management and control activities.39 4.6.2 Regression Analysis on Internal Audit Function versus Financial Performance H2: There is significant relationship between internal audit function and financial performance. Regression analysis was conducted to determine the significance of the relationship of internal audit function against financial performance. Figure 4.2 illustrates scatter plot diagram of internal audit function versus financial performance. The Figure 4.2 presents a line that is increasingly positively upwards. This implies that there is a positive linear relationship between internal audit function and financial performance. Figure 4.2 Regression Model on Internal Audit Function versus Financial Performance Source: computation through spss output, 2018 The Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results as shown in Table 4.15 confirms that the model fit is appropriate for this data since p-value of 0.000 which is less than 0.05. This implies that there is a significant positive relationship between internal audit function and financial performance.40 Table 4.15: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for Internal Audit function ANOVA Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 15.670 3 5.223 8.274 .000a Residual 32.830 52 .631 Total 48.500 55 a. Predictors: (Constant): internal audit function Source: computation through spss output, 2018 The results further indicate that internal audit function has a positive on financial performance (Table 4.16). The fitted model FP = 2.269 +0.291*X2. This implies that a unit change in internal audit function will increase financial performance by the rate of 0.291. Even when internal audit function is non-existence, financial performance is still positive at 2.269 indicating that there are other drivers of financial performance including internal control environment, risk management and control activities. Table 4.16: Internal Audit function and Financial Performance Coefficient __________________________________________________________________ Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients ___________________________________________________________________ B Std. Error Beta t Sig. (Constant) 2.269 0.768 2.954 .000a Internal Audit 0.291 0.118 0 .394 3.301 .000a Function ___________________________________________________________________ a. Dependent Variable: financial performance Source: computation through spss output, 2018 4.6.3 Regression Analysis on Risk Management versus Financial Performance41 H3: There is significant relationship between risk management control and financial performance. Regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between risk management and financial performance. Figure 4.3 illustrates scatter plot diagram of risk management versus financial performance. The Figure 4.3 presents a positive linear relationship between risk management and financial performance. Figure 4.3: Regression Model on Risk Management versus Financial Performance Source: computation through spss output, 2018 The Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results as shown in Table 4.17 confirms that the model fit is appropriate for this data since p-value of 0.002 which is less than 0.05. This implies that there is a significant positive relationship between risk management and financial performance. Table 4.17: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for Risk Management ANOVA Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 7.664 2 3.832 5.831 .002a Residual 34.836 53 .65742 Total 42.500 55 a. Predictors: (Constant), Risk Management Source: computation through spss output, 2018 The results further indicate that risk management control has a positive and significant effect on financial performance (Table 4.18). The fitted model FP = 1.918 +0.243*X3. This implies that a unit change in risk management will increase financial performance by the rate of 0.243. Even when risk management function is non-existence, financial performance is still positive at 8.918 indicating that there are other drivers of financial performance including internal control environment, internal audit function and control activities. Table 4.18: Risk Management and Financial Performance Coefficient __________________________________________________________________ Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients ___________________________________________________________________ B Std. Error Beta t Sig. (Constant) 1.918 0.598 3.218 .002a Risk Management 0.243 0.115 0 .268 2.242 .002a ___________________________________________________________________ a. Dependent Variable: financial performance Source: computation through spss output, 2018 4.6.4 Regression Analysis on Control Activities versus Financial Performance H4: There is significant relationship between internal control activities and financial performance. Regression analysis was conducted to determine the significance of the relationship of internal control activities against financial performance. Figure 4.4 illustrates scatter plot diagram of internal control activities versus financial performance. The Figure 4.4 presents a line that is increasingly positively upwards. This implies that there is a positive linear relationship between internal control activities and financial performance.43 Figure 4.4: Regression Model on Internal Control Activities versus Financial Performance Source: computation through spss output, 2018 The Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results as shown in Table 4.19 confirms that the model fit is appropriate for this data since p-value of 0.011 which is less than 0.05. This implies that there is a significant positive relationship between internal control activities and financial performance. Table 4.19: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for Control Activities ANOVA Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 6.513 2 3.256 4.903 .011a Residual 35.201 53 .664 Total 41.714 55 a. Predictors: (Constant): Internal Control Activities. Source: computation through spss output, 201844 The results further indicate that internal control activities have a positive and significant effect on financial performance (Table 4.20). The fitted model FP = 1.891 +0.212*X4. This implies that a unit change in control activity will increase financial performance by the rate of 0.212. Even when internal control activities are non-existence, financial performance is still positive at 1.891 indicating that there are other drivers of financial performance including internal control environment, internal audit function and risk management. Table 4.20: Risk Management and Financial Performance Coefficient __________________________________________________________________ Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients ___________________________________________________________________ B Std. Error Beta t Sig. (Constant) 1.891 0.646 2.930 .011a Internal Control 0.212 0.118 0 .239 1.921 .011a Activities ___________________________________________________________________ a. Dependent Variable: financial performance Source: computation through spss output, 2018 4.7 Combined Effect Model The research aimed at finding out the overall effect of the independent variables that is internal control environment, internal audit function, risk management and internal control activities on financial performance. The model FP= ?0+ ?1X1+ ?2X2+ ?3X3+ ?4X4+? explained 65.1% of the variations in financial performance as shown in Table 4.21. This showed that internal control environment, internal audit function, risk management and control activities explained 34.9% of the variations were due to other factors not in the study. Table 4.21.: Model Summary. Model Summary Mode R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .743a .701 .651 .32045 a. Predictors: internal control environment, internal audit function, risk management and control activities. Source: computation through spss output, 2018 The analysis of variance results in Table 4.22 indicates that the model fit is significant = 0.000, F=423.62 with 49 degrees of freedom. This implies that internal control environment, internal audit function, risk management and control activities have a significant and positive combined effect on financial performance. Table 4.22: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) ANOVA Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Regression 47.075 6 7.846 423.617 .000a Residual .908 49 .019 Total 47.982b 55 Source: computation through spss output, 2018 The overall model as shown on Table 4.23 indicated that risk management and internal control environment were highly significant at p=0.0000 and p=0.0011 respectively. However internal audit function and control activity were significant at p=0.0015 and 0.0081.The fitted model was FP= 0.215X1+ 0.506X2+ 0.369X3+ 0.287X4 Table 4.23: Relationship between Internal Control and Financial Performance Coefficients __________________________________________________________________ Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig. ___________________________________________________________________ Internal Control .215 .180 .264 1.192 .0011 Environment Internal Audit .506 .022 .721 1.313 .0015 Function Risk Management .369 .034 .328 2.190 .000046 Control Activities .287 .051 .013 3.192 .0081 ___________________________________________________________________ a. Dependent Variable: Financial performance b. Linear Regression through the Origin Source: computation through spss output, 2018 Where: Y= Financial Performance, X1= Internal control environment, X2= Internal audit functions, X3= Risk management, X4=Control activities and ? = Error Term. From the model, it is clear that, all the variables are positively related to the dependent variable as all the coefficients are positive. The results show that, Internal control environment has a positive relationship with financial performance of MFIs result to 0.215 times increase in the financial performance. From the model, it is also clear that, a unit increase in internal audit function would result to 0.506 times increase in the financial performance, a unit increase in the risk management would lead to 0.369 times increase in financial performance and a unit change in control activities would result to 0.287 times changes in financial performance. The significance of the coefficients at 5% level with a 2-tailed test was found to be significant as indicated by their p-values which are all less than 0.05 (the critical value at 5% level).47 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Introduction This chapter describes summaries of the research findings as per the research objective, conclusions based on those findings and recommendations which are based on both the research findings and other relevant literatures. 5.2 Summary of findings This part presents the summarized results and interpretation based on the objective of research as established at the beginning of the study. 5.2.1 Functionality of the internal control The study found out that there are acceptable business practices, conflict of interest and codes of conduct in the Omo micro finance institution in Wolaita zone and institutions had clear assignment of responsibilities and delegation of authorities and if employees had job responsibilities including specific duties, reporting relationship clearly established and communicated. On the effectiveness of the internal audit, the study found out internal audit plays a major role in fraud detection and prevention and does produce regular audit reports. The study also found that the internal audit department has developed manual that guide on planning monitoring and evaluation. Regarding with control activities, the study found that, the institution has developed effective policies and procedures on information and communication. In relation to risk management the study also found out that the institution had established a monitoring system that identifies potential risks and institutions has adequately implemented any inspection plans to reduce the inherent risks and if those plans which are periodically revised . 5.2.2 Internal Control and Financial Performance The study established a significant relationship between internal control and financial performance. This relationship was examined through the dimensions of internal control and that of the financial performance selected for this particular study. The dimensions of internal control (control environment, internal audit, and risk management and control activities) were linked to the dimensions of performance (liquidity, accountability, and profitability). Details show that control environment is related to profitability (r = 0.216, p ? 0.01), control environment is also related to accountability, (r = 0.213, p ? 0.01), and control environment is related with liquidity (r = 0.197, p ? 0.01). Like, the study found that internal audit as a dimension of internal control, is related with all the dimensions of financial performance in the following details; internal audit48 and profitability are related (r = 0.148, p ? 0.01), internal audit is related with accountability, (r = 0.086, p ? 0.01), and internal audit and liquidity have relationship (r = 0.083, p ? 0.01).On other hand risk management is related to profitability (r = 0.373, p ? 0.01), risk management is also related to accountability (r = 0.362, p ? 0.01), and risk management is related with liquidity (r = 0.332, p ? 0.01). In addition, control activities as a dimension of internal control and all the dimensions of financial performance are related; control activities and profitability are related (r = 0.386, p ? 0.01), control activities and accountability are related (r = 0.347, p ? 0.01), and control activities and liquidity are related (r = 0.372, p ? 0.01). 5.3 Conclusions Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that the institutions have an effective internal control as supported by the study findings of policies regarding acceptable business practices, conflicts of interest, and codes of conduct which are adequately communicated and clear separation of roles, supervision, training, and commitment of management. Confirming the argument of the findings of this study suggests that internal control systems is one significant area in institutions should give attention to in order to enhance their financial performance. The findings of this research support the findings of previous researchers. This study elicits the key determinants of internal control which can be nurtured by the management of institutions to better their financial performance. Hence this study widens the scope of identifying measures that will enhance institutions financial performance like internal control environment, internal audit function, risk management and control activities. Therefore the institutions have to invest in establishing strong internal control to realize better their financial performance. Further it can be concluded that effective internal control must enhance financial performance. There is conclusion on study is that there is a significant positive relationship between internal control (control environment, internal audit, and risk management and control activities) with financial performance (liquidity, accountability, and reporting). From the above conclusion, strong internal control must be entrenched in all levels of the organization by the managers to enhance organization’s financial performance. The study thus accepts the alternative hypothesis. 5.4 Recommendations The following recommendations were gathered from the results, findings and conclusions of the study. The management of Omo micro finance institutions should exert collective efforts in identifying the ideal mix of effective and efficient internal control that matches their business needs and invest in them. The managers should embrace risk management and internal audit to49 maximize on the financial benefits of internal control. Good internal audit will not only ensure that management does not override the internal controls but also help in reducing corruption and assist in enhancing financial performance of Omo micro finance institutions.. The study also recommends that the institution establishes a strategy for improving the generation of additional finances for the operation of the Omo micro finance institutions. This could be done through writing projects, other competitive endeavors which are directly aimed at winning funds for the Omo micro finance institutions. Finally, the study recommends that there should be a deliberate attempt to conduct a study which establishes the relationship of management’s commitment based on factors that are external to the Omo micro finance institutions such as, financial stress of parents, and information communication technology.50 REFERENCES Books Kothari, C. R. (2011). Research Methodology; Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers. Gaskill, M. (2015). Research methods: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. McGraw-Hill, Business research Methods. 7th Editions. Zikmund, W. G., Babin, B. J., Carr, J. C., & Griffin, M. (2010). Business research methods. (8thEdition). Published theses and dissertations Letenah Ejigu (2009) Performance Analysis of a sample Microfinance Institutions of Ethiopia. Eniola, Omoniyi Jacob (2015) Effect of Internal Control on Financial Performance of Firms in Nigeria. (A Study of Selected Manufacturing Firms) Mugo Jeremiah Munene. (2009) Effect of Internal Control on Financial Performance of Technical Training Institutions in Kenya. Aikins, S.K. (2013). An examination of government internal audits’ role in improving financial performance. Mawanda, P. (2014). Effects of internal control systems on financial performance in Uganda Christian University, Uganda. Adel, S. M. (2011). Internal audit effectiveness: an expansion of present methods, Managerial Auditing Journal, 16(8). Bett, C. (2014).The relationship between effectiveness of internal audit function and financial performance of companies listed in Uganda. Jokipii, A. (2010). Determinants and consequences of internal control in firms: A contingency theory based analysis. CPA Australia (2008). Internal Controls for Small Business. Business Management Journal. Melbourne, Australia.51 Mawanda, S. P. (2008). Effects of Internal Control Systems on Financial Performance in an Institution of Higher Learning in Uganda: A Case of Uganda Martyrs University. Bett, C. (2014).The relationship between effectiveness of internal audit function and financial performance of companies listed in Uganda. Mihret, D. G., & Yismaw, A. W. (2007). Internal audit effectiveness: An Ethiopian public sector case study. Managerial Auditing, Journal, 22(5), 470-484. Wanjara, S (2014). Influence of internal control system on the financial performance of Kenya Power Company. Al Matarneh, G. F. (2011). Factors determining the internal audit quality in banks: Empirical evidence from Jordan. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics. Web-sites http://common.books.com http://www.omfi.com http://web.ebscohost.com http://www.published research.com http://www.worldbank.org/june-2013 . .52 Appendix 1: Letter of Introduction by Researcher Date: _______________________________ Dear Respondent, This questionnaire is prepared to target top- level managers, mid-level managers and staff members of Omo micro finance institutions in Wolaita zone. The objective is to get an input for the accomplishment of MSc, in Accounting and finance on the title “Internal Control Effect on Financial Performance of Micro Finance Institutions in Ethiopia”: The Case of Omo Micro Finance Institutions in Wolaita Zone. The information you provide is valuable for the success of the research and will only be used for academic purpose. It shall also be kept confidential. Thank you in advance for your time and cooperation. Yours faithfully, Biruk Zara Chanko Student, MSc, Accounting and finance Registration ID Number ACFN/MW/005/200953 Appendix 2: Questionnaire PART 1: Background Information 1.1Name (Optional) _____________________ 1.2 Please indicate your Gender. Female Male 1.3 Name of your institution_____________________________ 1.4 What is your position in your institution __________________________ 1.5 What is your highest educational qualification? A, Diploma B, Degree C, Postgraduate D, other 1.6 For how long have you worked in this institution? A, Below 5 years B, 6-10 years C, 11-15 years D,16-20 years E, Over 20 years PART 2: Internal control environment Using the following table, please tick on the statements which describes your opinion of internal control environment in your institution. Scale: (Strongly agree=5, agree=4, Neutral=3, Disagree=2, strongly Disagree=1) Integrity and ethical values 5 4 3 2 1 2.1 The institution has policies regarding acceptable business practices, conflicts of interest, and codes of conduct and they adequately communicated. 2.2 Employee job descriptions, including specific duties, reporting responsibilities, and constraints are clearly established and effectively communicated to the employees. Commitment to competence 2.3 Management determines the level of knowledge and skills needed to perform a particular job and this information is used in the hiring process.54 2.4 The institution adequately compensates employees in order to attract qualified individuals. Management philosophy and operating style 2.5 Management and operating decisions are not dominated by a few individuals. 2.6 Management analyses the risks and potential benefits of a venture before making a decision. Organizational structure 2.7 The organization of the institution is clearly defined in terms of lines of authority and responsibility. 2.8 The institutions structure appropriate for the size and complexity of the entity. Assignment of authority and responsibility 2.9 There is clear assignment of responsibility and delegation of authority to deal with organizational goals and objectives, operating functions, and regulatory requirements. 2.10 All employees have job responsibilities, including specific duties, reporting relationships clearly established and communicated. Human resource policy and practices55 2.11 All personnel, including key managers, possess adequate knowledge and experience to discharge their responsibilities. 2.12 Management has shown commitment to competence and ensured that personnel receive adequate training to perform their duties. PART 3: Internal Audit Function Using the following table, please tick on the statements which describes your opinion of Internal Audit Function in your institution. Scale: (Strongly agree=5, agree=4, Neutral=3, Disagree=2, strongly Disagree=1) Monitoring and evaluation 5 4 3 2 1 3.1 The internal audit unit in the institution has developed an internal audit manual that guides audit operations such as planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Fraud prevention, detection and control 3.2 The internal audit unit in the institution plays a major role in fraud detection and prevention Reporting 3.3 The head of the Internal audit function is a member of the senior management team in the institution and reports to the CEO. PART 4: Control Activities Using the following table, please tick on the statements which describes your opinion of control activities in your institution. Scale: (Strongly agree=5, agree=4, Neutral=3, Disagree=2, strongly Disagree=1) Information and communication 5 4 3 2 156 4.1 The institution has well established information and communication channels. 4.2 The institution utilizes „suggestion boxes? for obtaining information that is sensitive and confidential for the effective management. Policies and procedure 4.3 The institution has developed effective policies and procedures on information and communication. PART 5: Risk Management Using the following table, please tick on the statements which describes your opinion of risk management in your institution. Scale: (Strongly agree=5, agree=4, Neutral=3, Disagree=2, strongly Disagree=1) Risk identification 5 4 3 2 1 5.1 The institution has a monitoring system that identifies potential risks. Risk evaluation 5.2 There is adequate capacity to perform risk assessment in my institution. Risk mitigation 5.3 The institution has adequately implemented any inspection plans to reduce the inherent risks which are periodically revised. PART 6: Financial Performance. Using the following table, please tick on the statements which describes your opinion of financial performance in your institution.57 Scale: (Strongly agree=5, agree=4, Neutral=3, Disagree=2, strongly Disagree=1) Statement 5 4 3 2 1 6.1 Profitability in institution over the last 5 years has been increasing steadily. 6.2 The Institution Accounting system adequately identifies the income and expenditure. 6.3 The institution has enough cash to meet its obligations effectively. Thank You for Your Cooperation.

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