WOMEN Supervised By Ms. Israt Ferdous Lecturer Department


ID: 141-15-3343
ID: 142-15-3541

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This Report Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Bachelor of Science in Computer Science and Engineering

Supervised By

Ms. Israt Ferdous
Department of CSE
Daffodil International University

Co-Supervised By

Afsara Tasnim Misha
Department of CSE
Daffodil International University

MAY 2018

©Daffodil International University

This Project titled “Women Safety Device”, submitted by Md. MAMUNUR RASHID, ID: 142-
15-3541 and AKASH SAHA, ID: 141-15-3343 to the Department of Computer Science and
Engineering, Daffodil International University, has been accepted as satisfactory for the partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Computer Science and
Engineering and approved as to its style and contents. The presentation has been held on 7th May


Dr. Syed Akhter Hossain Chairman
Professor and Head
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Faculty of Science & Information Technology
Daffodil International University

Dr. Sheak Rashed Haider Noori Internal Examiner
Associate Professor and Associate Head
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Faculty of Science & Information Technology
Daffodil International University

Md. Zahid Hasan Internal Examiner
Assistant Professor
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Faculty of Science & Information Technology
Daffodil International University

Dr. Mohammad Shorif Uddin External Examiner
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Jahangirnagar University

©Daffodil International University

©Daffodil International University

First we express our heartiest thanks and gratefulness to almighty God for His divine blessing
makes us possible to complete the final year project successfully.

We really grateful and wish our profound our indebtedness to Ms. Israt Ferdous, Lecturer,
Department of CSE Daffodil International University, Dhaka. Who have deep knowledge & keen
interest of our supervisor in the field of “Women Safety Device” to carry out this project? Her
endless patience, scholarly guidance, continual encouragement, constant and energetic
supervision, constructive criticism, valuable advice, reading many inferior draft and correcting
them at all stage have made it possible to complete this project.

We would like to express our heartiest gratitude to Dr. Syed Akhter Hossain, Professor and
Head, Department of CSE, for his kind help to finish our project and also to other faculty
member and the staff of CSE department of Daffodil International University.

We would like to thank our entire course mate in Daffodil International University, who took
part in this discussion while completing the course work.

Finally, we must acknowledge with due respect the constant support and patients of our parents.

©Daffodil International University

This Project presents a women safety detection system using GPS and GSM modems. The
system can be interconnected with the alarm system and alert the neighbors. This detection and
messaging system is composed of a GPS receiver, Microcontroller and a GSM Modem. GPS
Receiver gets the location information from satellites in the form of latitude and longitude. The
Microcontroller processes this information and this processed information is sent to the user
using GSM modem. A GSM modem is interfaced to the MCU. The GSM modem sends an SMS
to the predefined mobile number. When a woman is in danger and in need of self-defense then
she can press the switch which is allotted to her. By pressing the switch, at first call in a helping
number like parents nearest police station or close friend after 15 seconds no one can’t attempt to
response than the entire system will be activated in 5 seconds than immediately a sms will be
sent to concern person with location using GSM and GPS.

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Board of examiners i
Declaration ii
Acknowledgements iii
Abstract iv

1.1Objective 1
1.2 Introduction of Embedded Systems 1
1.3 Applications of Embedded Systems 3
1.3.1 Military and aerospace software applications 3
1.3.2 Communication applications 4
1.3.3 Electronic applications and consumer devices 4
1.4 Industrial automation and process control software 4

2.1 Block diagram of the project 5
2.2 Function of each block 5

3.1. GSM technology 7
3.1.1 Definition 7
3.1.2 History of GSM 7
3.1.3 GSM services 8
3.1.4 Operation of GSM 9
3.1.5 Security in GSM 10
3.1.6 Characteristics of GSM 10

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3.1.7 Advantages of GSM 11
3.1.8 GSM Applications 11
3.1.9 Future of GSM 11

4.1.1ATMEGA328 Microcontroller Description 13
4.1.2 Features of ATMEGA328 14
4.1.3 Advantages/ Improvements in ATMEGA328 14
4.1.4 Pin diagram of ATMEGA328 15
4.1.5 Pin description 15
4.2 Arduino Uno Board Description 18
4.3 Liquid crystal display (16 x 2) 20
4.4 Power Supply 24
4.4.1 Transformers 24
4.4.2 Rectifiers 25
4.4.3 Filters 25
4.5Message Management 25


5.1 Flow chart 29
5.2 Working Procedure 29
5.3. Algorithm 30
5.4. Advantages 30
5.5. Applications 30

6.1 Creating project in Arduino software 31

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7.1 Circuit Diagram 37
7.3 Result 37



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Figure 1.1 Block diagram of embedded system 2
Figure 2.1 Block diagram of the project 5
Figure 3.1 GSM Module 7
Figure 3.2 Graph of GSM Module 8
Figure 3.3 GSM Network Architecture 9
Figure 3.4 Operation of GSM 10
Figure 4.1 Pin configuration of ATMEGA328 15
Figure 4.2 Arduino UNO description 18
Figure 4.3 LCD Display 20
Figure 4.4.1 Procedure on 8-bit initialization 21
Figure 4.4.2 Internal Structure of LCD 22
Figure 4.4 Block Diagram of power supply 24
Figure 4.5 Block Diagram of Capacitive Filter 25
Figure 5.1: Flow chart of Proposed System 29
Figure 6.1: Download Arduino IDE Software 31
Figure 6.2: Running procedure of Arduino IDE 32
Figure 6.3: Create project 33
Figure 6.4: Arduino board selecting process 34
Figure 6.5: select wire serial process in Arduino board 35
Figure 7.1 Circuit diagram of the project 37
Figure 7.2: Full setup of Arduino Uno ; GSM Module 38
Figure 7.3: System Online 38
Figure 7.4: Sending Voice Call 39
Figure 7.5: Call Ended 39
Figure 7.6: Sending Message 40
Figure 7.7: Message Sent 40
Figure 7.8: Location coordinates 41

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Table 4.1: Pin Description 15-16
Table 4.3.1: Message Management General Description through LCD 23

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1.1 Objective
Security is the condition of being protected against danger or loss. In the general sense, security
is a concept similar to safety. The nuance between the two is an added emphasis on being
protected from dangers that originate from outside. Individuals or actions that encroach upon the
condition of protection are responsible for the breach of security. The word “security” in general
usage is synonymous with “safety,” but as a technical term “security” means that something not
only is secure but that it has been secured. This project is designed with ATmega328. This
Project presents a women safety detection system using GPS and GSM modems. The system can
be interconnected with the alarm system and alert the neighbors. This detection and messaging
system is composed of a GPS receiver, Microcontroller and a GSM Modem. PS Receiver gets
the location information from satellites in the form of latitude and longitude. The Microcontroller
processes this information and this processed information is sent to the user using GSM modem
A GSM modem is interfaced to the MCU. The GSM modem sends an SMS to the predefined
mobile number. When a woman is in danger and in need of self-defense then she can press the
switch which is allotted to her. By pressing the switch, the entire system will be activated then
immediately a SMS will be sent to concern person with location using GSM and GPS. This
project uses regulated 5V, 750mA power supply. 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used
for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used rectify the ac output of secondary
of 230/12V step down transformer 1.

1.2 Introduction to Embedded Systems
The microprocessor-based system is built for controlling a function or range of functions and is
not designed to be programmed by the end user in the same way a PC is defined as an embedded
system. An embedded system is designed to perform one particular task albeit with different
choices and options. Embedded systems contain processing cores that are either microcontrollers
or digital signal processors. Microcontrollers are generally known as “chip”, which may itself be
packaged with other microcontrollers in a hybrid system of Application Specific Integrated

©Daffodil International University
Circuit (ASIC). In general, input always comes from a detector or sensors in more specific word
and meanwhile the output goes to the activator which may start or stop the operation of the
machine or the operating system. An embedded system is a combination of both hardware and
software, each embedded system is unique and the hardware is highly specialized in the
application domain. Hardware consists of processors, microcontroller, IR sensors etc. On the
other hand, Software is just like a brain of the whole embedded system as this consists of the
programming languages used which makes hardware work. As a result, embedded systems
programming can be a widely varying experience. An embedded system is combination of
computer hardware and software, either fixed incapability or programmable, that is specifically
designed for particular kind of application device. Industrial machines, automobiles, medical
equipment, vending machines and toys (as well as the more obvious cellular phone and PDA) are
among the myriad possible hosts of an embedded system. Embedded systems that are
programmable are provided with a programming interface, and embedded systems programming
id specialized occupation 2.

Figure 1.1 Block diagram of embedded system

Embedded Systems



EX. Kiel, Arduino

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Figure2.1 illustrate the Block diagram of Embedded System (ES consists of hardware and
software part which again consists of programming language and physical peripherals
respectively). On the other hand, the microcontroller is a single silicon chip consisting of all
input, output and peripherals on it. A single microcontroller has the following features:
1. Arithmetic and logic unit
2. Memory for storing program
3. EEPROM for nonvolatile and special function registers
4. Input/output ports
5. Analog to digital converter
6. Circuits
7. Serial communication ports
1.3 Applications of Embedded System
We are living in the embedded world. You are surrounded with many embedded products and
your daily life largely depends on the proper functioning’s of these gadgets, television, radio, CD
layer of your living room, washing machines or microwave oven in your kitchen, card readers,
access controllers, palm devices of your work space enable to do many of your tasks very
effectively. Apart from all these, many controllers embedded in your car take care of your car
operation between the bumper and most of the times tend to ignore all these controllers. In recent
days you are showered with variety of information about these embedded controllers in many
places. All kind of magazines and journals regularly dish out details about latest technologies,
new devices: fast applications which make you believe that your basic survival is controlled by
these embedded products. Now you can agree to that fact these embedded products have
successfully invaded into our world. You must be wandering about these embedded controllers
or systems. The computer you use to compose your mails, or create a document or analyze the
database is known as standard desktop computer. These desktop computers are manufactured to
serve many purpose and applications 2.

1.3.1 Military and Aerospace Software Applications
From in-orbit embedded system to jumbo jets to vital battlefield networks, designer’s
performance, scalability, and high-availability facilities consistently turn to the Linux OS, RTOS
and LinuxOS-178RTOs for software certification to DO-178B rich in system resources and

©Daffodil International University
networking serviced, Linux OS provides an off-the-shelf software platform with hard real-time
response backed by powerful distributed computing(COBRA), high reliability’s software
certification, and long term support options 2.

1.3.2 Communications Applications
Five-nine” availability, compact PCI hot swap support, and hard real-time response Linux OS
delivers on these key requirements and more for today’s carrier-class systems. Scalable kernel
configurations, distributed computing capabilities, intergraded communications stacks, and fault-
management facilities make Linux OS the ideal choice for companies looking for single
operating system for all embedded telecommunication applications from complex central to
single line/trunk cards 2.

1.3.3 Electronics Applications and Consumer Devices
As the number of powerful embedded processor in consumer devices continues to rise, the blue
cat Linux operating system provides a highly reliable and royalty-free option for system
designers. And as the wireless appliance revolution rolls on, web enabled navigation systems,
radios, personal communication devices, phones and PDA sell benefit from the cost-effective
dependability, proven stability and full product lifecycle support opportunities associated with
blue cat embedded Linux. Blue cat has teamed out with industry leaders to make it easier to build
Linux mobile phones with java integration 2.

1.4 Industrial Automation and Process Control Software
Designers of industrial and process control systems know from experience that Linux works
operating system provide the security and reliability that their industrial applications require.
From ISO 9001 certification to fault-tolerance, secure portioning and high availability, we’ve got
it all. The advantage of our 20 years of experience with the embedded system. Now a day’s
embedded system widely using in the industrial areas to reduce to tike, perform the particular
task. This replacing the less work and also more efficient gives the accurate result 2.

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Block Diagram and Description
2.1 Block Diagram of the Project

Figure2.1: Block diagram

2.2 Functions of Each Block
Power Supply:
The primary function of a power supply is to convert one form of electrical energy into another
and, as a result power supplies.

The microcontroller is used to manipulate the serial operation based the program present in the
output is taken from one of the four ports.

LCD Display:
LCDs are available to display arbitrary images which can be displayed or hidden, such as preset
words, digits and 7 segment displays as in a digital clock. They use some basic technology,
GPS Receiver
GSM module

12v power

LCD Display

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except that arbitrary images are made up of a large number of pixels, while other displays have
larger elements.

Crystal Oscillator:
Crystal oscillator is used to produce oscillated pulses which are given to the microcontroller.

GSM Modem:
Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital
cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to
create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a
Pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900MHz.

GPS Receiver:
GPS, in full Global Positioning System, space-based radio-navigation system that broadcasts
highly accurate navigation pulses to users on or near the Earth. In the United States’ Navistar
GPS, 24 main satellites in 6 orbits circle the Earth every 12 hours. In addition, Russia maintains
a constellation called GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System).

©Daffodil International University
Technologies Used
3.1 GSM Technology
3.1.1 Definition of GSM
Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital
cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to
create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a
Pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz

Figure3.1: GSM modules
3.1.2 History of GSM
Global system for mobile communication is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular
communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a
common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a Pan-
European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz It is estimated that many countries
outside of Europe will join the GSM partnership. GSM, the Global System for Mobile
communications, is a digital cellular communications system, which has rapidly gained
acceptance and market share worldwide, although it was initially developed in a European
context. In addition to digital transmission, GSM incorporates many advanced services and

©Daffodil International University
features, including ISDN compatibility and worldwide roaming in other GSM networks. The
advanced services and architecture of GSM have made it a model for future third generation
cellular systems, such as UMTS. This will give an overview of the services offered by GSM, the
system architecture, the radio transmission. 3

Figure3.2: Graph for GSM module
3.1.3 GSM Services
? ?Tele-services
? ?Bearer or Data Services
? ?Supplementary services
Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones Offered
services, Mobile telephony, Emergency calling

Bearer or Data Services:
Include various data services for information transfer between GSM and other networks like
PSTN, ISDN etc. at rates from 300 to 9600 bps, Short Message Service(SMS) up to 160-

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character alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile terminal Unified, Messaging
Services(UMS), Group 3 fax, Voice mailbox, Electronic mail 2.

Supplementary services
Call related services like Call Waiting- Notification of an incoming call while on the handset,
Call Hold- Put a caller on hold to take another call, Call Barring- All calls, outgoing calls, or
incoming calls, Call Forwarding- Calls can be sent to various numbers defined by the user, Multi
Party Call Conferencing – Link multiple calls together
? ?CLIP – Caller line identification presentation
? ?CLIR – Caller line identification restriction

Figure3.3: GSM Network Architecture
3.1.4 Operation GSM
The basis of the GPS is a constellation of satellites that are continuously orbiting the earth. These
satellites, which are equipped with atomic clocks, transmit radio signals that contain their exact
location, time, and other information. The radio signals from the satellites, which are monitored
and corrected by control stations, are picked up by the GPS receiver. A Global Positioning
System receiver needs only three satellites to plot a rough, 2D position, which will not be very
accurate 3.

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Figure3.4: GSM operation
3.1.5 Security in GSM
? On air interface, GSM uses encryption and TMSI instead of IMSI.
? SIM is provided 4-8-digit PIN to validate the ownership of SIM
? 3 algorithms are specified:
– A3 algorithm for authentication
– A5 algorithm for encryption
– A8 algorithm for key generation

3.1.6 Characteristics of GSM Standard
? Fully digital system using 900,1800 MHz frequency band.
? TDMA over radio carriers (200 KHz carrier spacing.
? 8 full rate or 16 half rate TDMA channels per carrier.

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? User/terminal authentication for fraud control.
? Encryption of speech and data transmission over the radio path.
? Full international roaming capability.
? Low speed data services (up to 9.6 Kb/s).
? Compatibility with ISDN.
? Support of Short Message Service (SMS).
3.1.7 Advantages of GSM over Analog system
? Capacity increases
? Reduced RF transmission power and longer battery life.
? International roaming capability.
? Better security against fraud (through terminal validation and user
? Encryption capability for information security and privacy.
? Compatibility with ISDN, leading to wider range of services.

3.1.8 GSM Applications
? Mobile telephony
? Telemetry System
– Fleet management
– Automatic meter reading
– Toll Collection
– Remote control and fault reporting of DG sets

3.1.9 Future of GSM
? 2nd Generation
– GSM -9.6 Kbps (data rate
? Generation (Future of GSM)
– HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched data) its data rate: 76.8 Kbps (9.6 x

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– GPRS (General Packet Radio service) its data rate: 14.4 – 115.2 Kbps
– EDGE (Enhanced data rate for GSM Evolution) its data rate: 547.2 Kbps (max)
? 3 Generation
– WCDMA (Wide band CDMA its data rate: 0.348 – 2.0 Mbps

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Hardware Implementation
4.1.1 ATMEGA328 Microcontroller Description
The Atmel AVR® core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working
registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU),
allowing two independent registers to be accessed in a single instruction executed in one clock
cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten
times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers. TheATmega328/P provides the following
features: 32Kbytes of In-System Programmable Flash with Read-While-Write capabilities,
1Kbytes EEPROM, 2Kbytes SRAM, 23general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working
registers, Real Time Counter(RTC), three flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes and
PWM, 1 serial programmable USARTs, 1 byte-oriented 2-wire Serial Interface (I2C), a 6-
channel 10-bit ADC (8 channels in TQFP and QFN/MLF packages) , a programmable Watchdog
Timer with internal Oscillator, an SPI serial port, and six software selectable power saving
modes. This allows very fast start-up combined with low power consumption. In Extended
Standby mode, both the main oscillator and the asynchronous timer continue to run. Atmel offers
the QT ouch® library for embedding capacitive touch buttons, sliders and wheels functionality
into AVR microcontrollers. The patented charge-transfer signal acquisition offers robust sensing
and includes fully denounced reporting of touch key sand includes Adjacent Key Suppression®
(AKS™) technology for unambiguous detection of key events. The easy-to-use QT ouch Suite
tool chain allows you to explore, develop and debug your own touch applications. The device is
manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology. The On-chip ISP
Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed In-System through an SPI serial
interface, by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer, or by an On-chip Boot program
running on the AVR core. The ATmega328/P is supported with a full suite of program and
system development tools including: C Compilers, Macro Assemblers, Program
Debugger/Simulators, In-Circuit Emulators, and Evaluation kits 4.

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4.1.2 Features of Atmega
??28-pin AVR Microcontroller
??Flash Program Memory: 32 Kbytes
??EEPROM Data Memory: 1 Kbytes
??SRAM Data Memory: 2 Kbytes
??I/O Pins: 23
??Timers: Two 8-bit / One 16-bit
??A/D Converter: 10-bit Six Channel
??PWM: Six Channels
??RTC: Yes with Separate Oscillator
??MSSP: SPI and I²C Master and Slave Support
??USART: Yes
??External Oscillator: up to 20MHz

4.1.3 Advantages/ Improvements in Atmeg328
1. Still runs on 5 V, so legacy 5 V stuff interfaces cleaner
2. Even though it’s 5 V capable, newer parts can run to 1.8 V. This wide range is very
3. Nice instruction set, very good instruction throughput compared to other processors
(HCS08, PIC12/16/18).
4. High quality GCC port (no proprietary crappy compilers!)
5. “PA” variants have good sleep mode capabilities, in micro-amperes.
6. Well rounded peripheral set
7. QT ouch capability

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4.1.4 Pin diagram of ATMEGA328

Figure 4.1: Pin Configuration
4.1.5 Pin Explanation
4.1 Pin Descriptions table
Pin Number Description Function
t PC6 Reset
2 PD0 Digital Pin (RX)
3 PD1 Digital Pin (TX)
4 PD2 Digital Pin
5 PD3 Digital Pin (PWM)
6 PD4 Digital Pin
7 VCC Positive Voltage (Power)
8 GND Ground
9 XTAL 1 Crystal Oscillator
10 XTAL 2 Crystal Oscillator
11 PD5 Digital Pin (PWM)
12 PD6 Digital Pin (PWM)
13 PD7 Digital Pin

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14 PB0 Digital Pin
15 PB1 Digital Pin (PWM)
16 PB2 Digital Pin (PWM)
17 PB3 Digital Pin (PWM)
18 PB4 Digital Pin
19 PB5 Digital Pin
20 AVCC Positive voltage for ADC (power)
21 AREF Reference Voltage
22 GND Ground
23 PC0 Analog Input
24 PC1 Analog Input
25 PC2 Analog Input
26 PC3 Analog Input
27 PC4 Analog Input
28 PC5 Analog Input

Digital supply voltage.


Port B (PB 7:0) XTAL1/XTAL2/TOSC1/TOSC2:
Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even
if the clock is not running. Depending on the clock selection fuse settings, PB6 can be used as

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input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.
Depending on the clock selection fuse settings, PB7 can be used as output from the inverting
Oscillator amplifier. If the Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator is used as chip clock source, PB
7:6 is used as TOSC 2:1 input for the Asynchronous Timer/Counter2 if the AS2 bit in ASSR
is set 4.

Port C (PC 5:0):
Port C is a 7-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
PC 5:0 output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when are set condition becomes active, even
if the clock is not running 4.

If the RSTDISBL Fuse is programmed, PC6 is used as an I/O pin. Note that the electrical
characteristics of PC6 differ from those of the other pins of Port C. If the RSTDISBL Fuse is
programmed, PC6 is used as a Reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum
pulse length will generate a Reset, even if the clock is not running. Shorter pulses are not
guaranteed to generate a Reset. The various special features of Port C are elaborated in the
Alternate Functions of Port C section 4.

Port D (PD 7:0):
Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit).
The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even
if the clock is not running 4.

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AVCC is the supply voltage pin for the A/D Converter, PC 3:0, and PE 3:2. It should be
externally connected to VCC, even if the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be
connected to VCC through a low-pass filter. Note that PC 6:4 use digital supply voltage, VCC

AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter.

ADC 7:6 (TQFP and VFQFN Package Only):
In the TQFP and VFQFN package, ADC 7:6 serve as analog inputs to the A/D converter. These
pins are powered from the analog supply and serve as 10-bit ADC channels.

4.2 Arduino Uno Board Description
we will learn about the different components on the Arduino board. We will study the Arduino
UNO board because it is the most popular board in the Arduino board family. In addition, it is
the best board to get started with electronics and coding. Some boards look a bit different from
the one given below, but most Arduinos have majority of these components in common 4.

Figure 4.2: Arduino UNO board

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4.2.1 Power USB
Arduino board can be powered by using the USB cable from we computer. All we need to do is
connect the USB cable to the USB connection (1).

4.2.2 Power (Barrel Jack)
Arduino boards can be powered directly from the AC mains power supply by connecting it to the
Barrel Jack (2).

4.2.3 Voltage Regulator
The function of the voltage regulator is to control the voltage given to the Arduino board and
stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements 4.

4.2.4 Crystal Oscillator
The crystal oscillator helps Arduino in dealing with time issues. How does Arduino calculate
time? The answer is, by using the crystal oscillator. The number printed on top of the Arduino
crystal is 16.000H9H. It tells us that the frequency is 16,000,000 Hertz or 16 MHz 4.

4.2.5 Arduino Reset
We can reset weir Arduino board, i.e., start weir program from the beginning. We can reset the
UNO board in two ways. First, by using the reset button (17) on the board. Second, we can
connect an external reset button to the Arduino pin labelled RESET 5.

4.2.6 Pins (3.3, 5, GND, Vin)
? 3.3V (6) ? Supply 3.3 output volt
? 5V (7) ? Supply 5 output volt
? Most of the components used with Arduino board works fine with 3.3 volt and 5
volts. GND (8) (Ground) ? There are several GND pins on the Arduino, any of which
can be used to ground weir circuit.
? Vin (9) ? This pin also can be used to power the Arduino board from an external
power source, like AC mains power supply.

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4.2.7 Analog pins
The Arduino UNO board has five analog input pins A0 through A5. The pins can read the signal
from an analog sensor like the humidity sensor or temperature sensor and convert it into a digital
value that can be read by the microprocessor.

4.3 Liquid Crystal Display (16 X 2)
LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display. LCD is finding wide spread use replacing LEDs(seven
segment LEDs or other multi segment LEDs) because of the following reasons:
1. The declining prices of LCDs.
2. The ability to display numbers, characters and graphics. This is in contrast to LED, which are
limited to numbers and a few characters.
3. Incorporation of a refreshing controller into the LCD, thereby relieving the CPU of the task of
refreshing the LCD. In contrast, the LED must be refreshed by the CPU to keep displaying the
4. Ease of programming for characters and graphics. These components are “specialized” for
being used with the microcontrollers, which means that they cannot be activated by standard IC
circuits. They are used for writing different messages on a miniature LCD.

Figure 4.3: LCD Display

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A model described here is for its low price and great possibilities most frequently used in
practice. It is based on the HD44780 microcontroller (Hitachi) and can display messages in two
lines with 16 characters each. It displays all the alphabets, Greek letters, punctuation marks,
mathematical symbols etc. In addition, it is possible to display symbols that user makes up on its
own. Automatic shifting message on display (shift left and right), appearance of the pointer,
backlight etc. are considered as useful characteristics.

Pins Functions:
There are pins along one side of the small printed board used for connection to the
microcontroller. There are total of 14 pins marked with numbers (16 in case the background light
is built in). Their function is described in the table below:

Figure 4.4.1: Procedure on 8-bit initialization.

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LCD screen:
LCD screen consists of two lines with 16 characters each. Each character consists of 5×7 dot
matrix. Contrast on display depends on the power supply voltage and whether messages are
displayed in one or two lines. For that reason, variable voltage 0-Vdd is applied on pin marked as
Vie. Trimmer potentiometer is usually used for that purpose. Some versions of displays have
built in backlight (blue or green diodes). When used during operating, a resistor for current
limitation should be used (like with any LE diode).

Figure 4.4.2: Internal Structure of LCD

LCD Basic Commands:
All data transferred to LCD through outputs D0-D7 will be interpreted as commands or as data,
which depends on logic state on pin RS: RS = 1 – Bits D0 – D7 are addresses of characters that
should be displayed. Built in processor addresses built in “map of characters” and displays
corresponding symbols. Displaying position is determined by DDRAM address. This address is
either previously defined or the address of previously transferred character is automatically
incremented. RS = 0 – Bits D0 – D7 are commands which determine display mode. List of
commands which LCD recognizes are given in the table below:

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4..4.3 LCD Descriptions table

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4.4 Power Supply
In this project we have power supplies with +5V & -5V option normally +5V is enough for total
circuit. Another (-5V) supply is used in case of OP amp circuit. Transformer primary side has
230/50HZ AC voltage whereas at the secondary winding the voltage is step downed to 12/50 Hz
and this voltage is rectified using two full wave rectifiers. the rectified output is given to a filter
circuit to fitter the unwanted ac in the signal After that the output is again applied to a regulator
LM7805(to provide +5v) regulator. Whereas LM7905 is for providing –5V regulation. z (+12V
circuit is used for stepper motors, Fan and Relay by using LM7812 regulator same process like
above supplies).

Fig 4.4: Block Diagram of Power Supply

4.4.1 Transformer
Transformers are used to convert electricity from one voltage to another with minimal loss of
power. They only work with AC (alternating current) because they require a changing magnetic
field to be created in their core. Transformers can increase voltage (step-up) as well as reduce
voltage (step-down). Alternating current flowing in the primary (input) coil creates a continually
changing magnetic field in the iron core. This field also passes through the secondary (output)
coil and the changing strength of the magnetic field induces an alternating voltage in the
secondary coil. If the secondary coil is connected to a load the induced voltage will make an
induced current flow. The correct term for the induced voltage is ‘induced electromotive force’
which is usually abbreviated to induced e.m.f.

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4.4.2 Rectifier
The purpose of a rectifier is to convert an AC waveform into a DC wave form (OR) Rectifier
converts AC current or voltages into DC current or voltage. There are two different rectification
circuits, known as ‘half-wave’ and ‘full-wave’ rectifiers. Both use components called diodes to
convert AC into DC.

4.4.3 Filters
A filter circuit is a device which removes the ac component of rectifier output but allows the dc
component to the load. The most commonly used filter circuits are capacitor filter, Choke input
filter and capacitor input filter or pi-filter. We used capacitor filter here. The capacitor filter
circuit is extremely popular because of its low cost, small size, little weight and good
characteristics. For small load currents this type of filter is preferred. it is commonly used in
transistor radio battery eliminators.

Figure 4.5: Block Diagram of Capacitive Filter

4.5 Message Management
Message Management General Description:
Playback and record operations are managed by on-chip circuitry. There are several available
messaging modes depending upon desired operation. These message modes determine message

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management style, message length, and external parts count. Therefore, the designer must select
the Appropriate operating mode before beginning the design. Operating modes do not affect
voice quality; for information on factors affecting quality refer to the Sampling Rate & Voice
Quality section. The device supports five message management modes (defined by the MSEL1,
MSEL2 and /M8_OPTION pins shown in Figures 1 and 2):
? Random access mode with 2, 4, or 8 fixed-duration messages Tape mode, with multiple
variable-duration messages, provides two options:
– Auto rewind
– Normal
Modes cannot be mixed. Switching of modes after the device has recorded an initial message is
not recommended. If modes are switched after an initial recording has been made some
unpredictable message fragments from the previous mode may remain present, and be audible on
playback, in the new mode. These fragments will disappear after a Record operation in the newly
selected mode. Table 1 defines the decoding necessary to choose the desired mode. An important
feature of the APR9600 Message management capabilities is the ability to audibly prompt the
user to change in the device’s status through the use of “beeps” superimposed on the device’s
output. This feature is enabled by asserting a logic high level on the BE pin. Random Access
Mode Random access mode supports 2, 4, or 8 Message segments of fixed duration. As
suggested recording or playback can be made randomly in any of the selected messages. The
length of each message segment is the total recording length available (as defined by the selected
sampling rate) divided by the total number of segments enabled (as decoded in Table1). Random
access mode provides easy indexing to message Segments.

Functional Description:
On power up, the device is ready to record or playback, in any of the enabled message segments.
To playback, /CE must be set low to enable the device and /RE must be set high to disable
recording & enable playback. You initiate playback by applying a high to low edge on the
message trigger pin that represents the message segment you intend to playback. Playback will
continue until the end of the message is reached. If a high to low edge occurs on the same
message trigger pin during playback, playback of the current message stops immediately. If a
different message trigger pin pulses during playback, playback of the current message stops

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immediately (indicated by one beep) and playback of the new message segment begins. A delay
equal to 8,400 cycles of the sample clock will be encountered before the device starts playing the
new message. If a message trigger pin is held low, the selected message is played back
repeatedly as long as the trigger pin stays low. A period of silence, of duration equal to 8,400
cycles of the sampling clock, will be inserted during looping as an indicator to the user of the
transition between the end and the beginning of the message. Tape mode manages messages
sequentially much like traditional cassette tape recorders. Within tape mode two options exist,
auto rewind and normal. Auto rewind mode configures the device to automatically rewind to the
beginning of the message immediately following recording or playback of the message. In tape
mode, using either option, messages must be recorded or played back sequentially, much like a
traditional cassette tape recorder. A Function Description of Recording in Tape Mode using the
Auto Rewind Option On power up, the device is ready to record or playback, starting at the first
address in the memory array. To record, /CE must be set low to enable the device and/RE must
be set low to enable recording. A falling edge of the /M1_MESSAGE pin initiates voice
recording (indicated by one beep). A subsequent rising edge of the/M1_MESSAGE pin during
recording stops the recording (also indicated by one beep). If the M1_MESSAGE pin is held low
beyond the end of the available memory, recording will stop automatically (indicated by two
beeps). The device will then assert a logic low on the /M7_END pin until the /M1 Message pin is
released. The device returns to standby mode when the /M1_MESSAGE pin goes high again.
After recording is finished the device will automatically rewind to the beginning of the most
recently recorded message and wait for the next user input. The auto rewind function is
convenient because it allows the user to immediately playback and review the message without
the need to rewind. However, caution must be practiced because a subsequent record operation
will overwrite the last recorded message unless the user remembers to pulse the /M2_Next pin in
order to increment the device past the current message. A subsequent falling edge on
the/M1_Message pin starts a new record operation, overwriting the previously existing message.
You can preserve the previously recorded message by using the /M2_Nextinput to advance to the
next available message segment. To perform this function, the/M2_NEXT pin must be pulled
low for at least 400 cycles of the sample clock. The auto rewind mode allows the user to record
over the just recorded message simply by initiating record sequence without first toggling the
/M2_NEXT pinto record over any other message however requires a different sequence. You

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must pulse the /CE pin low once to rewind the device to the beginning of the voice memory. The
/M2_NEXT pin must then be pulsed low for the specified number of times to move to the start of
the message you wish to overwrite. Upon arriving at the desired message a record sequence can
be initiated to overwrite the previously recorded material. After you overwrite the message it
becomes the last available message 5.

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Flowchart & Working Procedure

5.1 Flow Chart

Figure 5.1: Flow chart of Proposed System

5.2 Working Procedure
This project clearly uses two main modules of GSM and a microcontroller. The user when sends
the messages through his phones those reaches the GSM, through theta commands all those
messages reaches the microcontroller. That microcontroller takes the data in terms of bits
through the Max232.That information will be transmitted to the LCD display.

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5.3 Algorithm
1.Initialize GPS sensor with 9600 baud rate.
2. Connect GPS TX Pin connected to Arduino RX pin 0.
3. Once power is on it takes 3 min to 5 min to activate gps sensor.
4.GPS sensor is giving different data like GPGGA, GPGSV, GPGSA.
5. In that we require GPGMC.
6. From that we have to extract the required data.
7. Finally display the data on the LCD display.

5.4 Advantages & Applications
5.4 Advantages:
???Sophisticated security.
???Monitors all hazards and threats.
??Alert message to mobile phone for remote information.
??Mobile number can be changed at any time.
??Can be used to prevent incidents.

??Security appliances.
??Safety of women.
??Used as a legal evidence of crime with exact location information for prosecution.

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Software Implementation

6.1 Creating Project in Arduino 1.7.11 Version.
Arduino Uno Installation:
In these we will get know of the process of installation of Arduino IDE and connecting Arduino
Uno to Arduino IDE.
Step 1:
First we must have our Arduino board (we can choose our favorite board) and a USB cable. In
case we use Arduino UNO, Arduino Duemilanove, Nano, Arduino Mega 2560, or Decimal, we
will need a standard USB cable (A plug to B plug), In case we use Arduino Nano, we will need
an A to Mini-B cable.

Step 2 – Download Arduino IDE Software:
We can get different versions of Arduino IDE from the Download page on the Arduino Official
website. We must select we software, which is compatible with weir operating system
(Windows, IOS, or Linux). After weir file download is complete, unzip the file.

Figure 6.1: Download Arduino IDE Software

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Step 3- Power up our board:
The Arduino Uno, Mega, Duemilanove and Arduino Nano automatically draw power from
either, the USB connection to the computer or an external power supply. If we are using an
Arduino Decimal, we have to make sure that the board is configured to draw power from the
USB connection. The power source is selected with a jumper, a small piece of plastic that fits
onto two of the three pins between the USB and power jacks. Check that it is on the two pins
closest to the USB port. Connect the Arduino board to weir computer using the USB cable. The
green power LED (labeled PWR) should glow.

Step 4 – Launch Arduino IDE:

Figure 6.2: Running procedure of Arduino IDE

After our Arduino IDE software is downloaded, we need to unzip the folder. Inside the folder,
we can find the application icon with an infinity label (application.exe). DoubleClick the icon to
start the IDE.

Step 5 – Open our first project:
Once the software starts, we have two options
* Create a new project

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Figure 6.3: Create project

* Open an existing project example.
To create a new project, select File ? New.
To open an existing project example, select File ? Example ? Basics ? Blink.
Here, we are selecting just one of the examples with the name Blink. It turns the LED on
and off with some time delay. We can select any other example from the list.

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Step 6 – Select our Arduino board:

Figure 6.4: Arduino board selecting process

To avoid any error while uploading weir program to the board, we must select the correct
Arduino board name, which matches with the board connected to weir computer. Go to Tools ?
Board and select weir board. Here, we have selected Arduino Uno board according to our
tutorial, but we must select the name matching the board that we are using.

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Step 7- Select wire serial port:

Figure 6.5: select wire serial process in Arduino board

Select the serial device of the Arduino board. Go to Tools ? Serial Port menu. This is likely to
be COM3 or higher (COM1 and COM2 are usually reserved for hardware serial ports). To find
out, we can disconnect wire Arduino board and re-open the menu, the entry that disappears
should be of the Arduino board. Reconnect the board and select that serial port.

Step 8
Upload the program to wire board: Before explaining how we can upload our program to the
board, we must demonstrate the function of each symbol appearing in the Arduino IDE toolbar.

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Dept. of Electronics and Communications Engineering Page 37
A ? Used to check if there is any compilation error.
B ? Used to upload a program to the Arduino board.
C ? Shortcut used to create a new sketch.
D ? Used to directly open one of the example sketch.
E ? Used to save weir sketch.
F ? Serial monitor used to receive serial data from the board and send the serial data to the board.
Now, simply click the “Upload” button in the environment. Wait a few seconds; we will see the
RX and TX LEDs on the board, flashing. If the upload is successful, the message “Done
uploading” will appear in the status bar. Note ? If we have an Arduino Mini, NG, or other board,
we need to press the reset button physically on the board, immediately before clicking the upload
button on the Arduino Software 4.

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Circuit Diagram & Result

7.1 Circuit Diagram

Figure 7.1: Circuit diagram of the project

7.3 Result
These are the outputs which are observed for our project while under working.

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Before Execution:

Figure 7.2: Full setup of Arduino Uno & GSM Module

After Execution:

Figure 7.3: System Online

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Figure 7.4: Sending Voice Call

Figure 7.5: Call Ended

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Figure 7.6: Sending Message

Figure 7.7: Message Sent

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Figure 7.8: Location coordinates

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Our effort behind this project is to design and fabricate a gadget which is so compact in itself that
provide advantage of personal security system the emergency response system which is helpful
for women in the incidents of crime. It is low cost system which can store the data of the
members in the particular locality and provide immediate alert in case of crime against women.
This provides women security. Being safe and secure is the demand of the day.

Future Scope
? Hand Band Portable device
? Adding Some Sensors for Disable people
? Mobile apps.
? Improve Location Tracking.
? All data will be stored in a database.

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ALU ………………………………… Arithmetic and Logic Unit
CPU …………………………………. Central Processing Unit
DC …………………………………… Direct Current
ESD …………………………………. Electro Static Discharge
VCC …………………………………. Digital power supply
GND …………………………………. Ground
IE ……………………………………… Interrupt Enable
IP ……………………………………… Interrupt priority
ISP ……………………………………. In-System Programmable
IEEE………………………… Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
INT…………………. …………………. Interrupt
I/O ……………………………………… Input/output
?C ……………………………………… Microcontroller
MCU …………………………………….. Microcontroller unit
ALE ………………………………….…. Address latch enable
SFR ……………………………………… Special function registers
PCON …………………………………… Power control register
TCON ……………………………………. Timer control registers
TMOD …………………………………… Timer mode
ROM ……………………………………. Read only memory
RAM ……………………………….……. Random access memory
UART ………………………… Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter

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1 Women’s Economic Empowerment, available at , last accessed on 07-04-2018 at 05:30pm.
2 Sinpyo Hong, Man Hyung Lee, Sun Hong Kwon, and Ho Hwan Chun, “A Car Test for the Estimation of
GPS/INS Alignment Errors” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Volume: 5 Issue: 3, Sept.
3 SIM900 GSM GPRS Shield with Arduino, available at ,last accessed on 06-03-2018 at 12:30am.
4 Embedded System, available at , last accessed on 05-04-
2018 at 8:30pm.
5 Getting Network Location using SIM900 GSM modules, available at , last accessed on 02-04-2018 at 01:00pm.


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