WOMEN Supervised By Ms. Israt Ferdous Lecturer Department

WOMEN SAFETY DEVICE BY AKASH SAHA ID: 141-15-3343 AND MD.MAMUNUR RASHID ID: 142-15-3541 This Report Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Computer Science and Engineering Supervised By Ms. Israt Ferdous Lecturer Department of CSE Daffodil International University Co-Supervised By Afsara Tasnim Misha Lecturer Department of CSE Daffodil International University DAFFODIL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY DHAKA, BANGLADESH MAY 2018i ©Daffodil International University APPROVAL This Project titled “Women Safety Device”, submitted by Md.

MAMUNUR RASHID, ID: 142-15-3541 and AKASH SAHA, ID: 141-15-3343 to the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Daffodil International University, has been accepted as satisfactory for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Computer Science and Engineering and approved as to its style and contents. The presentation has been held on 7th May 2018. BOARD OF EXAMINERS Dr. Syed Akhter Hossain Chairman Professor and Head Department of Computer Science and Engineering Faculty of Science & Information Technology Daffodil International University Dr. Sheak Rashed Haider Noori Internal Examiner Associate Professor and Associate Head Department of Computer Science and Engineering Faculty of Science & Information Technology Daffodil International University Md. Zahid Hasan Internal Examiner Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering Faculty of Science & Information Technology Daffodil International University Dr. Mohammad Shorif Uddin External Examiner Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering Jahangirnagar Universityi ©Daffodil International Universityiii ©Daffodil International University ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First we express our heartiest thanks and gratefulness to almighty God for His divine blessing makes us possible to complete the final year project successfully. We really grateful and wish our profound our indebtedness to Ms.

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Israt Ferdous, Lecturer, Department of CSE Daffodil International University, Dhaka. Who have deep knowledge & keen interest of our supervisor in the field of “Women Safety Device” to carry out this project? Her endless patience, scholarly guidance, continual encouragement, constant and energetic supervision, constructive criticism, valuable advice, reading many inferior draft and correcting them at all stage have made it possible to complete this project. We would like to express our heartiest gratitude to Dr. Syed Akhter Hossain, Professor and Head, Department of CSE, for his kind help to finish our project and also to other faculty member and the staff of CSE department of Daffodil International University. We would like to thank our entire course mate in Daffodil International University, who took part in this discussion while completing the course work. Finally, we must acknowledge with due respect the constant support and patients of our parents.iv ©Daffodil International University ABSTRACT This Project presents a women safety detection system using GPS and GSM modems.

The system can be interconnected with the alarm system and alert the neighbors. This detection and messaging system is composed of a GPS receiver, Microcontroller and a GSM Modem. GPS Receiver gets the location information from satellites in the form of latitude and longitude. The Microcontroller processes this information and this processed information is sent to the user using GSM modem. A GSM modem is interfaced to the MCU.

The GSM modem sends an SMS to the predefined mobile number. When a woman is in danger and in need of self-defense then she can press the switch which is allotted to her. By pressing the switch, at first call in a helping number like parents nearest police station or close friend after 15 seconds no one can’t attempt to response than the entire system will be activated in 5 seconds than immediately a sms will be sent to concern person with location using GSM and GPS.v ©Daffodil International University TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTS PAGE Board of examiners i Declaration ii Acknowledgements iii Abstract iv CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1-4 1.1Objective 1 1.2 Introduction of Embedded Systems 1 1.3 Applications of Embedded Systems 3 1.3.

1 Military and aerospace software applications 3 1.3.2 Communication applications 4 1.3.3 Electronic applications and consumer devices 4 1.4 Industrial automation and process control software 4 CHAPTER 2: BLOCK DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION 5-5 2.1 Block diagram of the project 5 2.2 Function of each block 5 CHAPTER 3: TECHNOLOGIES USED 7-11 3.

1. GSM technology 7 3.1.1 Definition 7 3.1.2 History of GSM 7 3.1.3 GSM services 8 3.

1.4 Operation of GSM 9 3.1.

5 Security in GSM 10 3.1.6 Characteristics of GSM 10vi ©Daffodil International University 3.1.7 Advantages of GSM 11 3.1.

8 GSM Applications 11 3.1.9 Future of GSM 11 CHAPTER 4: HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION 13-25 4.1.1ATMEGA328 Microcontroller Description 13 4.1.

2 Features of ATMEGA328 14 4.1.3 Advantages/ Improvements in ATMEGA328 14 4.1.4 Pin diagram of ATMEGA328 15 4.1.

5 Pin description 15 4.2 Arduino Uno Board Description 18 4.3 Liquid crystal display (16 x 2) 20 4.4 Power Supply 24 4.4.

1 Transformers 24 4.4.2 Rectifiers 25 4.4.3 Filters 25 4.5Message Management 25 CHAPTER 5: FLOWCHART ; WORKING PROCEDURE 29-30 5.1 Flow chart 29 5.

2 Working Procedure 29 5.3. Algorithm 30 5.4. Advantages 30 5.

5. Applications 30 CHAPTER 6: SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION 31-36 6.1 Creating project in Arduino software 31vii ©Daffodil International University CHAPTER 7: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND RESULT 37-37 7.1 Circuit Diagram 37 7.3 Result 37 CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSION 42 REFERENCES 44viii ©Daffodil International University LIST OF FIGURES PAGE Figure 1.

1 Block diagram of embedded system 2 Figure 2.1 Block diagram of the project 5 Figure 3.1 GSM Module 7 Figure 3.2 Graph of GSM Module 8 Figure 3.3 GSM Network Architecture 9 Figure 3.4 Operation of GSM 10 Figure 4.1 Pin configuration of ATMEGA328 15 Figure 4.

2 Arduino UNO description 18 Figure 4.3 LCD Display 20 Figure 4.4.1 Procedure on 8-bit initialization 21 Figure 4.4.2 Internal Structure of LCD 22 Figure 4.

4 Block Diagram of power supply 24 Figure 4.5 Block Diagram of Capacitive Filter 25 Figure 5.1: Flow chart of Proposed System 29 Figure 6.1: Download Arduino IDE Software 31 Figure 6.2: Running procedure of Arduino IDE 32 Figure 6.3: Create project 33 Figure 6.

4: Arduino board selecting process 34 Figure 6.5: select wire serial process in Arduino board 35 Figure 7.1 Circuit diagram of the project 37 Figure 7.2: Full setup of Arduino Uno ; GSM Module 38 Figure 7.3: System Online 38 Figure 7.

4: Sending Voice Call 39 Figure 7.5: Call Ended 39 Figure 7.6: Sending Message 40 Figure 7.7: Message Sent 40 Figure 7.8: Location coordinates 41ix ©Daffodil International University LIST OF TABLES PAGE Table 4.1: Pin Description 15-16 Table 4.

3.1: Message Management General Description through LCD 231 ©Daffodil International University CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1 Objective Security is the condition of being protected against danger or loss. In the general sense, security is a concept similar to safety. The nuance between the two is an added emphasis on being protected from dangers that originate from outside.

Individuals or actions that encroach upon the condition of protection are responsible for the breach of security. The word “security” in general usage is synonymous with “safety,” but as a technical term “security” means that something not only is secure but that it has been secured. This project is designed with ATmega328.

This Project presents a women safety detection system using GPS and GSM modems. The system can be interconnected with the alarm system and alert the neighbors. This detection and messaging system is composed of a GPS receiver, Microcontroller and a GSM Modem. PS Receiver gets the location information from satellites in the form of latitude and longitude. The Microcontroller processes this information and this processed information is sent to the user using GSM modem A GSM modem is interfaced to the MCU. The GSM modem sends an SMS to the predefined mobile number. When a woman is in danger and in need of self-defense then she can press the switch which is allotted to her.

By pressing the switch, the entire system will be activated then immediately a SMS will be sent to concern person with location using GSM and GPS. This project uses regulated 5V, 750mA power supply. 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used rectify the ac output of secondary of 230/12V step down transformer 1.

1.2 Introduction to Embedded Systems The microprocessor-based system is built for controlling a function or range of functions and is not designed to be programmed by the end user in the same way a PC is defined as an embedded system. An embedded system is designed to perform one particular task albeit with different choices and options. Embedded systems contain processing cores that are either microcontrollers or digital signal processors. Microcontrollers are generally known as “chip”, which may itself be packaged with other microcontrollers in a hybrid system of Application Specific Integrated2 ©Daffodil International University Circuit (ASIC).

In general, input always comes from a detector or sensors in more specific word and meanwhile the output goes to the activator which may start or stop the operation of the machine or the operating system. An embedded system is a combination of both hardware and software, each embedded system is unique and the hardware is highly specialized in the application domain. Hardware consists of processors, microcontroller, IR sensors etc.

On the other hand, Software is just like a brain of the whole embedded system as this consists of the programming languages used which makes hardware work. As a result, embedded systems programming can be a widely varying experience. An embedded system is combination of computer hardware and software, either fixed incapability or programmable, that is specifically designed for particular kind of application device. Industrial machines, automobiles, medical equipment, vending machines and toys (as well as the more obvious cellular phone and PDA) are among the myriad possible hosts of an embedded system. Embedded systems that are programmable are provided with a programming interface, and embedded systems programming id specialized occupation 2.

Figure 1.1 Block diagram of embedded system Embedded Systems Hardware Software Microcontrollers or microprocessors EX. Kiel, Arduino etc.3 ©Daffodil International University Figure2.

1 illustrate the Block diagram of Embedded System (ES consists of hardware and software part which again consists of programming language and physical peripherals respectively). On the other hand, the microcontroller is a single silicon chip consisting of all input, output and peripherals on it. A single microcontroller has the following features: 1. Arithmetic and logic unit 2. Memory for storing program 3. EEPROM for nonvolatile and special function registers 4.

Input/output ports 5. Analog to digital converter 6. Circuits 7. Serial communication ports 1.3 Applications of Embedded System We are living in the embedded world. You are surrounded with many embedded products and your daily life largely depends on the proper functioning’s of these gadgets, television, radio, CD layer of your living room, washing machines or microwave oven in your kitchen, card readers, access controllers, palm devices of your work space enable to do many of your tasks very effectively. Apart from all these, many controllers embedded in your car take care of your car operation between the bumper and most of the times tend to ignore all these controllers.

In recent days you are showered with variety of information about these embedded controllers in many places. All kind of magazines and journals regularly dish out details about latest technologies, new devices: fast applications which make you believe that your basic survival is controlled by these embedded products. Now you can agree to that fact these embedded products have successfully invaded into our world. You must be wandering about these embedded controllers or systems. The computer you use to compose your mails, or create a document or analyze the database is known as standard desktop computer. These desktop computers are manufactured to serve many purpose and applications 2. 1.3.

1 Military and Aerospace Software Applications From in-orbit embedded system to jumbo jets to vital battlefield networks, designer’s performance, scalability, and high-availability facilities consistently turn to the Linux OS, RTOS and LinuxOS-178RTOs for software certification to DO-178B rich in system resources and4 ©Daffodil International University networking serviced, Linux OS provides an off-the-shelf software platform with hard real-time response backed by powerful distributed computing(COBRA), high reliability’s software certification, and long term support options 2. 1.3.

2 Communications Applications Five-nine” availability, compact PCI hot swap support, and hard real-time response Linux OS delivers on these key requirements and more for today’s carrier-class systems. Scalable kernel configurations, distributed computing capabilities, intergraded communications stacks, and fault-management facilities make Linux OS the ideal choice for companies looking for single operating system for all embedded telecommunication applications from complex central to single line/trunk cards 2. 1.

3.3 Electronics Applications and Consumer Devices As the number of powerful embedded processor in consumer devices continues to rise, the blue cat Linux operating system provides a highly reliable and royalty-free option for system designers. And as the wireless appliance revolution rolls on, web enabled navigation systems, radios, personal communication devices, phones and PDA sell benefit from the cost-effective dependability, proven stability and full product lifecycle support opportunities associated with blue cat embedded Linux.

Blue cat has teamed out with industry leaders to make it easier to build Linux mobile phones with java integration 2. 1.4 Industrial Automation and Process Control Software Designers of industrial and process control systems know from experience that Linux works operating system provide the security and reliability that their industrial applications require. From ISO 9001 certification to fault-tolerance, secure portioning and high availability, we’ve got it all. The advantage of our 20 years of experience with the embedded system. Now a day’s embedded system widely using in the industrial areas to reduce to tike, perform the particular task. This replacing the less work and also more efficient gives the accurate result 2.5 ©Daffodil International University CHAPTER 2 Block Diagram and Description 2.

1 Block Diagram of the Project Figure2.1: Block diagram 2.2 Functions of Each Block Power Supply: The primary function of a power supply is to convert one form of electrical energy into another and, as a result power supplies. Microcontroller: The microcontroller is used to manipulate the serial operation based the program present in the output is taken from one of the four ports. LCD Display: LCDs are available to display arbitrary images which can be displayed or hidden, such as preset words, digits and 7 segment displays as in a digital clock. They use some basic technology, GPS Receiver Microcontroller ATmega328 GSM module 12v power supply LCD Display6 ©Daffodil International University except that arbitrary images are made up of a large number of pixels, while other displays have larger elements. Crystal Oscillator: Crystal oscillator is used to produce oscillated pulses which are given to the microcontroller.

GSM Modem: Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a Pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900MHz. GPS Receiver: GPS, in full Global Positioning System, space-based radio-navigation system that broadcasts highly accurate navigation pulses to users on or near the Earth. In the United States’ Navistar GPS, 24 main satellites in 6 orbits circle the Earth every 12 hours. In addition, Russia maintains a constellation called GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System).7 ©Daffodil International University CHAPTER 3 Technologies Used 3.1 GSM Technology 3.1.

1 Definition of GSM Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a Pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz Figure3.1: GSM modules 3.1.

2 History of GSM Global system for mobile communication is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a Pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz It is estimated that many countries outside of Europe will join the GSM partnership. GSM, the Global System for Mobile communications, is a digital cellular communications system, which has rapidly gained acceptance and market share worldwide, although it was initially developed in a European context. In addition to digital transmission, GSM incorporates many advanced services and8 ©Daffodil International University features, including ISDN compatibility and worldwide roaming in other GSM networks. The advanced services and architecture of GSM have made it a model for future third generation cellular systems, such as UMTS.

This will give an overview of the services offered by GSM, the system architecture, the radio transmission. 3 Figure3.2: Graph for GSM module 3.1.3 GSM Services ? ?Tele-services ? ?Bearer or Data Services ? ?Supplementary services Tele-services: Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones Offered services, Mobile telephony, Emergency calling Bearer or Data Services: Include various data services for information transfer between GSM and other networks like PSTN, ISDN etc. at rates from 300 to 9600 bps, Short Message Service(SMS) up to 160-9 ©Daffodil International University character alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile terminal Unified, Messaging Services(UMS), Group 3 fax, Voice mailbox, Electronic mail 2. Supplementary services Call related services like Call Waiting- Notification of an incoming call while on the handset, Call Hold- Put a caller on hold to take another call, Call Barring- All calls, outgoing calls, or incoming calls, Call Forwarding- Calls can be sent to various numbers defined by the user, Multi Party Call Conferencing – Link multiple calls together ? ?CLIP – Caller line identification presentation ? ?CLIR – Caller line identification restriction Figure3.3: GSM Network Architecture 3.

1.4 Operation GSM The basis of the GPS is a constellation of satellites that are continuously orbiting the earth. These satellites, which are equipped with atomic clocks, transmit radio signals that contain their exact location, time, and other information. The radio signals from the satellites, which are monitored and corrected by control stations, are picked up by the GPS receiver. A Global Positioning System receiver needs only three satellites to plot a rough, 2D position, which will not be very accurate 3.10 ©Daffodil International University Figure3.

4: GSM operation 3.1.5 Security in GSM ? On air interface, GSM uses encryption and TMSI instead of IMSI. ? SIM is provided 4-8-digit PIN to validate the ownership of SIM ? 3 algorithms are specified: – A3 algorithm for authentication – A5 algorithm for encryption – A8 algorithm for key generation 3.

1.6 Characteristics of GSM Standard ? Fully digital system using 900,1800 MHz frequency band. ? TDMA over radio carriers (200 KHz carrier spacing. ? 8 full rate or 16 half rate TDMA channels per carrier.11 ©Daffodil International University ? User/terminal authentication for fraud control. ? Encryption of speech and data transmission over the radio path.

? Full international roaming capability. ? Low speed data services (up to 9.6 Kb/s).

? Compatibility with ISDN. ? Support of Short Message Service (SMS). 3.1.

7 Advantages of GSM over Analog system ? Capacity increases ? Reduced RF transmission power and longer battery life. ? International roaming capability. ? Better security against fraud (through terminal validation and user authentication). ? Encryption capability for information security and privacy. ? Compatibility with ISDN, leading to wider range of services. 3.

1.8 GSM Applications ? Mobile telephony ? GSM-R ? Telemetry System – Fleet management – Automatic meter reading – Toll Collection – Remote control and fault reporting of DG sets 3.1.9 Future of GSM ? 2nd Generation – GSM -9.6 Kbps (data rate ? Generation (Future of GSM) – HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched data) its data rate: 76.8 Kbps (9.6 x 8kbps)12 ©Daffodil International University – GPRS (General Packet Radio service) its data rate: 14.4 – 115.

2 Kbps – EDGE (Enhanced data rate for GSM Evolution) its data rate: 547.2 Kbps (max) ? 3 Generation – WCDMA (Wide band CDMA its data rate: 0.348 – 2.

0 Mbps13 ©Daffodil International University CHAPTER 4 Hardware Implementation 4.1.1 ATMEGA328 Microcontroller Description The Atmel AVR® core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in a single instruction executed in one clock cycle.

The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers. TheATmega328/P provides the following features: 32Kbytes of In-System Programmable Flash with Read-While-Write capabilities, 1Kbytes EEPROM, 2Kbytes SRAM, 23general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, Real Time Counter(RTC), three flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes and PWM, 1 serial programmable USARTs, 1 byte-oriented 2-wire Serial Interface (I2C), a 6- channel 10-bit ADC (8 channels in TQFP and QFN/MLF packages) , a programmable Watchdog Timer with internal Oscillator, an SPI serial port, and six software selectable power saving modes. This allows very fast start-up combined with low power consumption. In Extended Standby mode, both the main oscillator and the asynchronous timer continue to run. Atmel offers the QT ouch® library for embedding capacitive touch buttons, sliders and wheels functionality into AVR microcontrollers. The patented charge-transfer signal acquisition offers robust sensing and includes fully denounced reporting of touch key sand includes Adjacent Key Suppression® (AKS™) technology for unambiguous detection of key events. The easy-to-use QT ouch Suite tool chain allows you to explore, develop and debug your own touch applications. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology.

The On-chip ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed In-System through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer, or by an On-chip Boot program running on the AVR core. The ATmega328/P is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools including: C Compilers, Macro Assemblers, Program Debugger/Simulators, In-Circuit Emulators, and Evaluation kits 4.14 ©Daffodil International University 4.1.2 Features of Atmega ??28-pin AVR Microcontroller ??Flash Program Memory: 32 Kbytes ??EEPROM Data Memory: 1 Kbytes ??SRAM Data Memory: 2 Kbytes ??I/O Pins: 23 ??Timers: Two 8-bit / One 16-bit ??A/D Converter: 10-bit Six Channel ??PWM: Six Channels ??RTC: Yes with Separate Oscillator ??MSSP: SPI and I²C Master and Slave Support ??USART: Yes ??External Oscillator: up to 20MHz 4.1.3 Advantages/ Improvements in Atmeg328 1.

Still runs on 5 V, so legacy 5 V stuff interfaces cleaner 2. Even though it’s 5 V capable, newer parts can run to 1.8 V. This wide range is very rare. 3.

Nice instruction set, very good instruction throughput compared to other processors (HCS08, PIC12/16/18). 4. High quality GCC port (no proprietary crappy compilers!) 5. “PA” variants have good sleep mode capabilities, in micro-amperes. 6. Well rounded peripheral set 7. QT ouch capability15 ©Daffodil International University 4.1.

4 Pin diagram of ATMEGA328 Figure 4.1: Pin Configuration 4.1.5 Pin Explanation 4.1 Pin Descriptions table Pin Number Description Function t PC6 Reset 2 PD0 Digital Pin (RX) 3 PD1 Digital Pin (TX) 4 PD2 Digital Pin 5 PD3 Digital Pin (PWM) 6 PD4 Digital Pin 7 VCC Positive Voltage (Power) 8 GND Ground 9 XTAL 1 Crystal Oscillator 10 XTAL 2 Crystal Oscillator 11 PD5 Digital Pin (PWM) 12 PD6 Digital Pin (PWM) 13 PD7 Digital Pin16 ©Daffodil International University 14 PB0 Digital Pin 15 PB1 Digital Pin (PWM) 16 PB2 Digital Pin (PWM) 17 PB3 Digital Pin (PWM) 18 PB4 Digital Pin 19 PB5 Digital Pin 20 AVCC Positive voltage for ADC (power) 21 AREF Reference Voltage 22 GND Ground 23 PC0 Analog Input 24 PC1 Analog Input 25 PC2 Analog Input 26 PC3 Analog Input 27 PC4 Analog Input 28 PC5 Analog Input VCC: Digital supply voltage. GND: Ground. Port B (PB 7:0) XTAL1/XTAL2/TOSC1/TOSC2: Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit).

The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Depending on the clock selection fuse settings, PB6 can be used as17 ©Daffodil International University input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. Depending on the clock selection fuse settings, PB7 can be used as output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier. If the Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator is used as chip clock source, PB 7:6 is used as TOSC 2:1 input for the Asynchronous Timer/Counter2 if the AS2 bit in ASSR is set 4. Port C (PC 5:0): Port C is a 7-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit).

The PC 5:0 output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when are set condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running 4. PC6/RESET: If the RSTDISBL Fuse is programmed, PC6 is used as an I/O pin. Note that the electrical characteristics of PC6 differ from those of the other pins of Port C. If the RSTDISBL Fuse is programmed, PC6 is used as a Reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a Reset, even if the clock is not running.

Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a Reset. The various special features of Port C are elaborated in the Alternate Functions of Port C section 4. Port D (PD 7:0): Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running 4.18 ©Daffodil International University AVCC: AVCC is the supply voltage pin for the A/D Converter, PC 3:0, and PE 3:2. It should be externally connected to VCC, even if the ADC is not used.

If the ADC is used, it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter. Note that PC 6:4 use digital supply voltage, VCC 4. AREF: AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter. ADC 7:6 (TQFP and VFQFN Package Only): In the TQFP and VFQFN package, ADC 7:6 serve as analog inputs to the A/D converter. These pins are powered from the analog supply and serve as 10-bit ADC channels. 4.

2 Arduino Uno Board Description we will learn about the different components on the Arduino board. We will study the Arduino UNO board because it is the most popular board in the Arduino board family. In addition, it is the best board to get started with electronics and coding. Some boards look a bit different from the one given below, but most Arduinos have majority of these components in common 4.

Figure 4.2: Arduino UNO board19 ©Daffodil International University 4.2.1 Power USB Arduino board can be powered by using the USB cable from we computer. All we need to do is connect the USB cable to the USB connection (1).

4.2.2 Power (Barrel Jack) Arduino boards can be powered directly from the AC mains power supply by connecting it to the Barrel Jack (2).

4.2.3 Voltage Regulator The function of the voltage regulator is to control the voltage given to the Arduino board and stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements 4. 4.2.

4 Crystal Oscillator The crystal oscillator helps Arduino in dealing with time issues. How does Arduino calculate time? The answer is, by using the crystal oscillator. The number printed on top of the Arduino crystal is 16.

000H9H. It tells us that the frequency is 16,000,000 Hertz or 16 MHz 4. 4.2.5 Arduino Reset We can reset weir Arduino board, i.e.

, start weir program from the beginning. We can reset the UNO board in two ways. First, by using the reset button (17) on the board. Second, we can connect an external reset button to the Arduino pin labelled RESET 5. 4.2.6 Pins (3.3, 5, GND, Vin) ? 3.

3V (6) ? Supply 3.3 output volt ? 5V (7) ? Supply 5 output volt ? Most of the components used with Arduino board works fine with 3.3 volt and 5 volts. GND (8) (Ground) ? There are several GND pins on the Arduino, any of which can be used to ground weir circuit. ? Vin (9) ? This pin also can be used to power the Arduino board from an external power source, like AC mains power supply.20 ©Daffodil International University 4.

2.7 Analog pins The Arduino UNO board has five analog input pins A0 through A5. The pins can read the signal from an analog sensor like the humidity sensor or temperature sensor and convert it into a digital value that can be read by the microprocessor. 4.3 Liquid Crystal Display (16 X 2) LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display. LCD is finding wide spread use replacing LEDs(seven segment LEDs or other multi segment LEDs) because of the following reasons: 1. The declining prices of LCDs. 2.

The ability to display numbers, characters and graphics. This is in contrast to LED, which are limited to numbers and a few characters. 3. Incorporation of a refreshing controller into the LCD, thereby relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. In contrast, the LED must be refreshed by the CPU to keep displaying the data. 4. Ease of programming for characters and graphics. These components are “specialized” for being used with the microcontrollers, which means that they cannot be activated by standard IC circuits.

They are used for writing different messages on a miniature LCD. Figure 4.3: LCD Display21 ©Daffodil International University A model described here is for its low price and great possibilities most frequently used in practice. It is based on the HD44780 microcontroller (Hitachi) and can display messages in two lines with 16 characters each. It displays all the alphabets, Greek letters, punctuation marks, mathematical symbols etc.

In addition, it is possible to display symbols that user makes up on its own. Automatic shifting message on display (shift left and right), appearance of the pointer, backlight etc. are considered as useful characteristics. Pins Functions: There are pins along one side of the small printed board used for connection to the microcontroller. There are total of 14 pins marked with numbers (16 in case the background light is built in). Their function is described in the table below: Figure 4.4.

1: Procedure on 8-bit initialization.22 ©Daffodil International University LCD screen: LCD screen consists of two lines with 16 characters each. Each character consists of 5×7 dot matrix.

Contrast on display depends on the power supply voltage and whether messages are displayed in one or two lines. For that reason, variable voltage 0-Vdd is applied on pin marked as Vie. Trimmer potentiometer is usually used for that purpose. Some versions of displays have built in backlight (blue or green diodes). When used during operating, a resistor for current limitation should be used (like with any LE diode). Figure 4.4.2: Internal Structure of LCD LCD Basic Commands: All data transferred to LCD through outputs D0-D7 will be interpreted as commands or as data, which depends on logic state on pin RS: RS = 1 – Bits D0 – D7 are addresses of characters that should be displayed.

Built in processor addresses built in “map of characters” and displays corresponding symbols. Displaying position is determined by DDRAM address. This address is either previously defined or the address of previously transferred character is automatically incremented. RS = 0 – Bits D0 – D7 are commands which determine display mode.

List of commands which LCD recognizes are given in the table below:23 ©Daffodil International University 4..4.3 LCD Descriptions table24 ©Daffodil International University 4.

4 Power Supply In this project we have power supplies with +5V & -5V option normally +5V is enough for total circuit. Another (-5V) supply is used in case of OP amp circuit. Transformer primary side has 230/50HZ AC voltage whereas at the secondary winding the voltage is step downed to 12/50 Hz and this voltage is rectified using two full wave rectifiers.

the rectified output is given to a filter circuit to fitter the unwanted ac in the signal After that the output is again applied to a regulator LM7805(to provide +5v) regulator. Whereas LM7905 is for providing –5V regulation. z (+12V circuit is used for stepper motors, Fan and Relay by using LM7812 regulator same process like above supplies).

Fig 4.4: Block Diagram of Power Supply 4.4.

1 Transformer Transformers are used to convert electricity from one voltage to another with minimal loss of power. They only work with AC (alternating current) because they require a changing magnetic field to be created in their core. Transformers can increase voltage (step-up) as well as reduce voltage (step-down). Alternating current flowing in the primary (input) coil creates a continually changing magnetic field in the iron core. This field also passes through the secondary (output) coil and the changing strength of the magnetic field induces an alternating voltage in the secondary coil. If the secondary coil is connected to a load the induced voltage will make an induced current flow. The correct term for the induced voltage is ‘induced electromotive force’ which is usually abbreviated to induced e.

m.f.25 ©Daffodil International University 4.4.2 Rectifier The purpose of a rectifier is to convert an AC waveform into a DC wave form (OR) Rectifier converts AC current or voltages into DC current or voltage. There are two different rectification circuits, known as ‘half-wave’ and ‘full-wave’ rectifiers. Both use components called diodes to convert AC into DC.

4.4.3 Filters A filter circuit is a device which removes the ac component of rectifier output but allows the dc component to the load. The most commonly used filter circuits are capacitor filter, Choke input filter and capacitor input filter or pi-filter. We used capacitor filter here. The capacitor filter circuit is extremely popular because of its low cost, small size, little weight and good characteristics. For small load currents this type of filter is preferred. it is commonly used in transistor radio battery eliminators.

Figure 4.5: Block Diagram of Capacitive Filter 4.5 Message Management Message Management General Description: Playback and record operations are managed by on-chip circuitry. There are several available messaging modes depending upon desired operation. These message modes determine message26 ©Daffodil International University management style, message length, and external parts count. Therefore, the designer must select the Appropriate operating mode before beginning the design.

Operating modes do not affect voice quality; for information on factors affecting quality refer to the Sampling Rate & Voice Quality section. The device supports five message management modes (defined by the MSEL1, MSEL2 and /M8_OPTION pins shown in Figures 1 and 2): ? Random access mode with 2, 4, or 8 fixed-duration messages Tape mode, with multiple variable-duration messages, provides two options: – Auto rewind – Normal Modes cannot be mixed. Switching of modes after the device has recorded an initial message is not recommended. If modes are switched after an initial recording has been made some unpredictable message fragments from the previous mode may remain present, and be audible on playback, in the new mode.

These fragments will disappear after a Record operation in the newly selected mode. Table 1 defines the decoding necessary to choose the desired mode. An important feature of the APR9600 Message management capabilities is the ability to audibly prompt the user to change in the device’s status through the use of “beeps” superimposed on the device’s output. This feature is enabled by asserting a logic high level on the BE pin. Random Access Mode Random access mode supports 2, 4, or 8 Message segments of fixed duration. As suggested recording or playback can be made randomly in any of the selected messages.

The length of each message segment is the total recording length available (as defined by the selected sampling rate) divided by the total number of segments enabled (as decoded in Table1). Random access mode provides easy indexing to message Segments. Functional Description: On power up, the device is ready to record or playback, in any of the enabled message segments. To playback, /CE must be set low to enable the device and /RE must be set high to disable recording & enable playback. You initiate playback by applying a high to low edge on the message trigger pin that represents the message segment you intend to playback.

Playback will continue until the end of the message is reached. If a high to low edge occurs on the same message trigger pin during playback, playback of the current message stops immediately. If a different message trigger pin pulses during playback, playback of the current message stops27 ©Daffodil International University immediately (indicated by one beep) and playback of the new message segment begins. A delay equal to 8,400 cycles of the sample clock will be encountered before the device starts playing the new message. If a message trigger pin is held low, the selected message is played back repeatedly as long as the trigger pin stays low. A period of silence, of duration equal to 8,400 cycles of the sampling clock, will be inserted during looping as an indicator to the user of the transition between the end and the beginning of the message.

Tape mode manages messages sequentially much like traditional cassette tape recorders. Within tape mode two options exist, auto rewind and normal. Auto rewind mode configures the device to automatically rewind to the beginning of the message immediately following recording or playback of the message. In tape mode, using either option, messages must be recorded or played back sequentially, much like a traditional cassette tape recorder.

A Function Description of Recording in Tape Mode using the Auto Rewind Option On power up, the device is ready to record or playback, starting at the first address in the memory array. To record, /CE must be set low to enable the device and/RE must be set low to enable recording. A falling edge of the /M1_MESSAGE pin initiates voice recording (indicated by one beep).

A subsequent rising edge of the/M1_MESSAGE pin during recording stops the recording (also indicated by one beep). If the M1_MESSAGE pin is held low beyond the end of the available memory, recording will stop automatically (indicated by two beeps). The device will then assert a logic low on the /M7_END pin until the /M1 Message pin is released. The device returns to standby mode when the /M1_MESSAGE pin goes high again.

After recording is finished the device will automatically rewind to the beginning of the most recently recorded message and wait for the next user input. The auto rewind function is convenient because it allows the user to immediately playback and review the message without the need to rewind. However, caution must be practiced because a subsequent record operation will overwrite the last recorded message unless the user remembers to pulse the /M2_Next pin in order to increment the device past the current message. A subsequent falling edge on the/M1_Message pin starts a new record operation, overwriting the previously existing message. You can preserve the previously recorded message by using the /M2_Nextinput to advance to the next available message segment. To perform this function, the/M2_NEXT pin must be pulled low for at least 400 cycles of the sample clock. The auto rewind mode allows the user to record over the just recorded message simply by initiating record sequence without first toggling the /M2_NEXT pinto record over any other message however requires a different sequence. You28 ©Daffodil International University must pulse the /CE pin low once to rewind the device to the beginning of the voice memory.

The /M2_NEXT pin must then be pulsed low for the specified number of times to move to the start of the message you wish to overwrite. Upon arriving at the desired message a record sequence can be initiated to overwrite the previously recorded material. After you overwrite the message it becomes the last available message 5.29 ©Daffodil International University CHAPTER 5 Flowchart & Working Procedure 5.

1 Flow Chart Figure 5.1: Flow chart of Proposed System 5.2 Working Procedure This project clearly uses two main modules of GSM and a microcontroller. The user when sends the messages through his phones those reaches the GSM, through theta commands all those messages reaches the microcontroller.

That microcontroller takes the data in terms of bits through the Max232.That information will be transmitted to the LCD display.30 ©Daffodil International University 5.

3 Algorithm 1.Initialize GPS sensor with 9600 baud rate. 2. Connect GPS TX Pin connected to Arduino RX pin 0. 3.

Once power is on it takes 3 min to 5 min to activate gps sensor. 4.GPS sensor is giving different data like GPGGA, GPGSV, GPGSA. 5. In that we require GPGMC. 6. From that we have to extract the required data. 7.

Finally display the data on the LCD display. 5.4 Advantages & Applications 5.4 Advantages: ???Sophisticated security. ???Monitors all hazards and threats. ??Alert message to mobile phone for remote information. ??Mobile number can be changed at any time. ??Can be used to prevent incidents.

5.5 APPLICATIONS: ??Security appliances. ??Safety of women. ??Used as a legal evidence of crime with exact location information for prosecution.31 ©Daffodil International University CHAPTER 6 Software Implementation 6.1 Creating Project in Arduino 1.7.11 Version.

Arduino Uno Installation: In these we will get know of the process of installation of Arduino IDE and connecting Arduino Uno to Arduino IDE. Step 1: First we must have our Arduino board (we can choose our favorite board) and a USB cable. In case we use Arduino UNO, Arduino Duemilanove, Nano, Arduino Mega 2560, or Decimal, we will need a standard USB cable (A plug to B plug), In case we use Arduino Nano, we will need an A to Mini-B cable. Step 2 – Download Arduino IDE Software: We can get different versions of Arduino IDE from the Download page on the Arduino Official website. We must select we software, which is compatible with weir operating system (Windows, IOS, or Linux). After weir file download is complete, unzip the file. Figure 6.

1: Download Arduino IDE Software32 ©Daffodil International University Step 3- Power up our board: The Arduino Uno, Mega, Duemilanove and Arduino Nano automatically draw power from either, the USB connection to the computer or an external power supply. If we are using an Arduino Decimal, we have to make sure that the board is configured to draw power from the USB connection. The power source is selected with a jumper, a small piece of plastic that fits onto two of the three pins between the USB and power jacks. Check that it is on the two pins closest to the USB port. Connect the Arduino board to weir computer using the USB cable. The green power LED (labeled PWR) should glow. Step 4 – Launch Arduino IDE: Figure 6.2: Running procedure of Arduino IDE After our Arduino IDE software is downloaded, we need to unzip the folder. Inside the folder, we can find the application icon with an infinity label (application.exe). DoubleClick the icon to start the IDE. Step 5 – Open our first project: Once the software starts, we have two options * Create a new project33 ©Daffodil International University Figure 6.3: Create project * Open an existing project example. To create a new project, select File ? New. To open an existing project example, select File ? Example ? Basics ? Blink. Here, we are selecting just one of the examples with the name Blink. It turns the LED on and off with some time delay. We can select any other example from the list.34 ©Daffodil International University Step 6 – Select our Arduino board: Figure 6.4: Arduino board selecting process To avoid any error while uploading weir program to the board, we must select the correct Arduino board name, which matches with the board connected to weir computer. Go to Tools ? Board and select weir board. Here, we have selected Arduino Uno board according to our tutorial, but we must select the name matching the board that we are using.35 ©Daffodil International University Step 7- Select wire serial port: Figure 6.5: select wire serial process in Arduino board Select the serial device of the Arduino board. Go to Tools ? Serial Port menu. This is likely to be COM3 or higher (COM1 and COM2 are usually reserved for hardware serial ports). To find out, we can disconnect wire Arduino board and re-open the menu, the entry that disappears should be of the Arduino board. Reconnect the board and select that serial port. Step 8 Upload the program to wire board: Before explaining how we can upload our program to the board, we must demonstrate the function of each symbol appearing in the Arduino IDE toolbar.36 ©Daffodil International University Dept. of Electronics and Communications Engineering Page 37 A ? Used to check if there is any compilation error. B ? Used to upload a program to the Arduino board. C ? Shortcut used to create a new sketch. D ? Used to directly open one of the example sketch. E ? Used to save weir sketch. F ? Serial monitor used to receive serial data from the board and send the serial data to the board. Now, simply click the “Upload” button in the environment. Wait a few seconds; we will see the RX and TX LEDs on the board, flashing. If the upload is successful, the message “Done uploading” will appear in the status bar. Note ? If we have an Arduino Mini, NG, or other board, we need to press the reset button physically on the board, immediately before clicking the upload button on the Arduino Software 4.37 ©Daffodil International University CHAPTER 7 Circuit Diagram & Result 7.1 Circuit Diagram Figure 7.1: Circuit diagram of the project 7.3 Result These are the outputs which are observed for our project while under working.38 ©Daffodil International University Before Execution: Figure 7.2: Full setup of Arduino Uno & GSM Module After Execution: Figure 7.3: System Online39 ©Daffodil International University Figure 7.4: Sending Voice Call Figure 7.5: Call Ended40 ©Daffodil International University Figure 7.6: Sending Message Figure 7.7: Message Sent41 ©Daffodil International University Figure 7.8: Location coordinates42 ©Daffodil International University CHAPTER 8 Conclusion Our effort behind this project is to design and fabricate a gadget which is so compact in itself that provide advantage of personal security system the emergency response system which is helpful for women in the incidents of crime. It is low cost system which can store the data of the members in the particular locality and provide immediate alert in case of crime against women. This provides women security. Being safe and secure is the demand of the day. Future Scope ? Hand Band Portable device ? Adding Some Sensors for Disable people ? Mobile apps. ? Improve Location Tracking. ? All data will be stored in a database.43 ©Daffodil International University LIST OF ABREVATIONS ALU ………………………………… Arithmetic and Logic Unit CPU …………………………………. Central Processing Unit DC …………………………………… Direct Current ESD …………………………………. Electro Static Discharge VCC …………………………………. Digital power supply GND …………………………………. Ground IE ……………………………………… Interrupt Enable IP ……………………………………… Interrupt priority ISP ……………………………………. In-System Programmable IEEE………………………… Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers INT…………………. …………………. Interrupt I/O ……………………………………… Input/output ?C ……………………………………… Microcontroller MCU …………………………………….. Microcontroller unit ALE ………………………………….…. Address latch enable SFR ……………………………………… Special function registers PCON …………………………………… Power control register TCON ……………………………………. Timer control registers TMOD …………………………………… Timer mode ROM ……………………………………. Read only memory RAM ……………………………….……. Random access memory UART ………………………… Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter44 ©Daffodil International University REFERENCES 1 Women’s Economic Empowerment, available at , last accessed on 07-04-2018 at 05:30pm. 2 Sinpyo Hong, Man Hyung Lee, Sun Hong Kwon, and Ho Hwan Chun, “A Car Test for the Estimation of GPS/INS Alignment Errors” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Volume: 5 Issue: 3, Sept. 2004 3 SIM900 GSM GPRS Shield with Arduino, available at ,last accessed on 06-03-2018 at 12:30am. 4 Embedded System, available at , last accessed on 05-04-2018 at 8:30pm. 5 Getting Network Location using SIM900 GSM modules, available at , last accessed on 02-04-2018 at 01:00pm.


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