ZAMBIAN used as a development tool–as in

ZAMBIAN OPEN UNIVERSITYSCHOOL HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES2339975274320 STUDENT NAME: CHARITY NAMWINGA PROGRAM: DEVELOPMENT STUDIES COURE: DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION THEATRE OF DEVELOPMENT COURSE CODE: DS11 YEAR: SECOND YEAR LECTURER: DR BANDA DUE DATA: 30TH April, 2018 ASSSIGNMENT NO: 2 PHONE NUMBER: 0979384569 ADDRESS: MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURETheatre for Development, or TfD, means live performance, or theater used as a development tool–as in international development. TfD encompasses the following in-person activities, with people or “puppets”, before an audience: a spoken-word drama or comedy; a music, singing and/or dance production; a production with movement but no sound (mime) and participatory or improvisational techniques using any or all of these. Theatre for Development can be a kind of participatory theatre, that encourages improvisation and audience members to take roles in the performance, or can be fully scripted and staged, with the audience observing. Many TfD productions are a mix of the two.

“Theatre of the Oppressed”, a technique created by Augusto Boal is a form of participatory theatre for development. Epskamp, Kees (2006:98) defined theatre as a “collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place.”The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music or dance.

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Elements of design and stagecraft are used to enhance the physicality, presence and immediacy of the experience.Having been an important part of human culture for more than 2,500 years, theatre has evolved a wide range of different theories and practices. Some are related to political or spiritual ideologies, while others are based purely on “artistic” concerns.

Some processes focus on a story, some on theatre as event, and some on theatre as catalyst for social change.Theatre for Development (TfD) is a development practice that uses performance as a participatory tool to help individuals and groups share their experiences with the intent of social transformation. TfD offers a practical and theoretical exploration of the ways in which the arts can be used by communities to create social transformation on their own terms. The underlying components of all TfD work are democracy, participation and sustainability.Theater for development can also be defined as a progression from less interactive theatre forms to a more dialogical process, where theatre is practiced with the people or by the people as a way of empowering communities, listening to their concerns, and then encouraging them to voice and solve their own problems.Conventional theatre (Stage theatre) is the performance of a drama on a stage before a formal, mostly paying, audience in a theatre hall with actors wearing costumes, using props, and carefully following a script. This is the traditional sense of theatre.

The type of theatre performed at the Schools and Colleges Drama festivals, at the Lusaka Theatre Club, are examples of conventional theatre. In all these examples, organized theatre troupes perform a written drama for a paying audience.Non-conventional theatre (Community theatre) does not have to be based on a written script or performed by trained actors in costumes on a formal set in a theatre hall. It does not have a clear division between the performers and the audience. Usually it is not performed for a paying audience because it is in an open space and any person can walk by, observe, and participate.

Community theatre uses theatre to interact with the community. Working together, the actors and the audience use theatre to discuss or solve problems facing the community. It is used to educate and mobilize communities, and to discuss and question behaviors, attitudes, or knowledge to bring about social change.In some forms of community theatre, the audience and the actors work together to compose and perform a drama, analyze a communal problem, and discuss acceptable solutions.

Public health issues, democracy, spiritual growth, gender equality, and peace initiatives are some of the social concerns that have been explored using non-conventional theatre.There are many variations and types of non-conventional theatre, designed based on their functions, manner of implementation, site of implementation or even the source from which it is derived. Examples of community theatre include: Guerrilla theatre, Forum theatre or theatre of the oppressed, Street theatre, Agitprop theatre (Agitation-Propaganda), Newspaper theatre, Participatory Educational Theatre, Theatre in Education, Magnet Theatre, Theatre in Development, and Ambush theatreFrom the foregoing, it could be said that TFD in Zambia has come to stay, for people to use to think and act on the problems of their community.

In fact, Illah (2004:6) affirms, “theatre can now be used as a participatory tool to ensure the sharing of ideas and the changing of attitudes towards sustainable development.” For optimal results, TFD practitioners must employ certain modes which are relevant to people’s mode of artistic expression in order to conscientize them towards social, political and development. Kasama Theatre Arts ProductionKasama Theatre Arts Production hereinafter being referred to as KATP is a group of performing arts based in Kasama, Zambia and gender sensitive. KATP was formed in 1993 and operated in the name of Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia (PPAZ) Northern region. In 1999 the group changed its name from PPAZ to Big Six, The group was called by this name up to July, 2005. To many people Big Six meant a group comprising only six people which according to the general understanding of the public, the group should not have more than six members. Another big meeting was called involving major stakeholders and partners.

After brainstorming, the group was renamed as Kasama Arts Theatre Production. This also meant revising the Vision and the mission statement.In order to deliver the intended information to the masses with a Zambian flavor, Kasama Arts Theatre Production works to promote networking with partners such as Community based art groups, interest groups and individuals and other public institutions by using the integrated approach in performing its activities in an effective, comprehensive and indeed objective manner. This means that Kasama Arts Theatre Production (KATP) being a community group, it endeavors to work with the community and ensure that all its productions address the issues of the community, this being in line with theatre for development theory. CompositionThe group is composed of members from Kasama Communities throughout the district and other community theatre stakeholders.Legal status Kasama Theatre Arts Production (KATP), is registered with National Arts Council of Zambia (NACZ) established by an Act of parliament No. 31 of 1994 and statutory instrument No. 129 of 1995 as an Art Association, and an affiliate of Zambia Popular Theatre Alliance (ZAPOTA).

VisionUsing popular theatre for sustainable human development Mission Statement Kasama Arts Theatre Production is a group of performing artists armed at entertaining, informing, sensitizing and education the community through performing arts.GoalTo contribute towards social and economic development through contemporary ArtsObjectives1. To entertain, inform, sensitize and educate the community through performing arts,2. To ensure that all collaborating partners are given equal access, quality services.3.

To reduce the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate and scale up awareness, prevention and treatment programs to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS and the other reproductive health concerns among communities by using expressive arts.4. Use cultural participation and expressive arts as a viable tool for development.

In summary, Theatre for Development aims to offer an alternative approach and medium by which theatre can be of direct service to the marginalized urban and rural peasant masses. The TFD approach which is gaining slow ascendancy in Africa, in countries such as, Zambia emphasizes collectivism and participation.It stresses community and inter-personal participation in self realization and uses existing and familiar performance forms in the various communities such as songs, dances, music, storytelling, puppetry and mime to either validate those cultural forms or serve as an adequate instrument to bring about social change in those communities.

BIBLIOGRAPHYEpskamp, Kees (2006).Theatre for Development: An Introduction to Context, Applications ; Training. London: Zed Books Kabwe Kasoma (1974) Theatre and Development Media in PSC ,Lusaka, UNZA Press McCarthy, J (2004) Enacting Participatory Development: Theatre-based Techniques, Cambridge University Press.

Plastow, J. (2004) Theatre and Empowerment: Community Drama on the World Stage, Chicago, University of Leeds. Obafemi Olu (2003). The Role of Theatre in Sustaining Democracy in Nigeria.

A key note paper presented in a seminar organized on the occasion of the International Theatre day commemoration in Lagos by the National Association of Nigeria Theatre Arts Practitioners (NANTAP). Alliance Francaise, Lagos,March 26, 2003.Theater as a Means of Moral Education and Socialization in the Development of Nauvoo, Illinois, 1839-1845, thesis by Hurd, L., California State University, Dominguez Hills.

2004 UNICEF (2007) PSC Workshop on Communication for Social Development,held at the University of Zambia, Lusaka, 29 April to 10 May 1974, Lusaka, Zambia.

ZAMBIAN terms of hardware of production. He noted

ZAMBIAN OPEN UNIVERSITYSCHOOL HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES2339975274320 STUDENT NAME: CHARITY NAMWINGA PROGRAM: DEVELOPMENT STUDIES COURE: TECHNOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT COURSE CODE: DS10 YEAR: SECOND YEAR LECTURER: MRS M. MULUNGA DUE DATA: 27TH APRIL, 2018 ASSSIGNMENT NO: 2 (TWO) PHONE NUMBER: 0979384569 ADDRESS: MINISTRY OF AGRICULTUREThis paper will first define the key words technology, police and technological policy. The word technology according to Meier (1989) looks at technology not only in terms of hardware of production.

He noted that technology can be extended to all the ‘skill, knowledge and procedures for making, using and doing useful things’. Policy is guided principles of public affairs, or the legislature in its measure.While technological policy according to my own understanding technological policy are those policies that the government puts in place to help and guide the nation to acquire scientific knowledge, skills and procedures that can promote the development of the country through industrialization and nurturing those capabilities and optimizing the applications of national goals and interest for better economy. In other way I can say, technological polices are polices that the Zambian government has formulate to guide the nation on how to acquire information that can be useful in promoting skills and knowledge, or technological way of improving our economy and the development of our country.

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Zambian government did not pay much attention no promoting technology for the past years until recently when the government recognizing the importance of technology and how it can help in promoting the national economy and uplift the standard of living through industrialization which can only come with improvement of technology. Since independence in 1964, Zambia followed and implemented various macro-economic and development strategies. Between 1960 and 1970 Zambia adopted an import substitution strategy for the development of its manufacturing sector in an effort to achieve a rapid industrialization process. The strategy enabled the country to produce a wide variety of consumer goods (ranging from food, textiles, furniture, alcoholic and nonalcoholic drink, etc) and assembled goods including motor vehicles, radios, etc. The policy of import substitution entailed transfer of technology and expertise from outside Zambia.Despite massive investment in this sector, between 1970 and 1980, Zambia experienced stagnation in economic and industrial performance.

Between 1980 and 1991 economic and industrial performance further deteriorated, followed by a devastating decline in social infrastructure, dwindling financial reserves, uncontrolled inflation, rising debt obligation and declining productivity and export capacity.After recognizing the importance of technology, the government of Zambia formulates the ministry responsibly for science, technology and vocational to try and improve on technology and monitoring the performance and also to in back on research to see how the technology can improve our economy and develop our nation. The transformation of Zambian economy from a central state controlled to free market brought some beneficial results in some sector of economy and some negative results in other sectors, such as manufacturing industry, which faced stiff competition from improved goods and services. The government realized that the major contributing factors to the poor performance of the industries in our country have being the lack of application technology, which has led to the declining of productivity under global trade environment.

Most African countries are still facing the some problem of meting international standards in terms of quality production of goods and services because of using the old way of doing things. Since that time when the Republic of Zambia recognizes technology and put in place the right policies to promoting industrialization may sectors improved in terms of production of goods and services, for example in Agriculture sector there is tremendous improvement and production has gone up but less value addition because of luck of technological knowledge of production to many farmers especial small scale farmers who are in rule areas, if Zambia can inverts in agriculture technology by Provide a high quality appropriate and cost effect services to farmers, generating and adapting crop and livestock technologies, which increase agricultural productivity and diversity production. This includes the development of law cost sustainable farming systems for all major agro-ecological zones and farm sizes in Zambia through participation of both public and private sector in research activities. Strengthening demand driven adaptive research; multiplication and distribution of planting materials of major food security crops, strengthening research/extension/farmer linkages, Strengthening research capabilities and capacity for livestock research in diseases, husbandry practices, breeding and nutrition in order to address the livestock constraint of small-scale farmers, more industries could have being viable today. Commercial farmers are using modern way of production especially in a global trade environment dominated by rapidly evolving new technologies and processes and governed by free market forces. On a macro-economic level, there has been lack of policies to respond to the new free market economic environment. Over the last twenty years, no significant investments in research and development have taken place in the development of new products and processes aimed at promoting competitiveness of both the public and private enterprises, despite 80% of the economy having been in the hands of the former Zambia Industrial and Mining Corporation (ZIMCO).

Zambia’s mining sector is largely based on copper, with smaller output of cobalt, nickel, gold, and others. Traditionally, the mining sector was characterized by underground mines in the Copperbelt. Since 2000, new mining and associated infrastructure investment has been targeted in the Northwest Province, which utilizes capital-intensive open cast mining techniques. As a result, the old Copperbelt is becoming less important in terms of revenues and output, even though it remains the largest source of employment. The current environment of lower commodity prices has impacted more adversely on the old Copperbelt underground mines whose cost structure is more labour-intensive and dependent on a wider range of domestically and imported manufactured inputs. Conversely, the opencast mines costs are largely associated with imported earthmoving machinery, spare parts, and diesel fuel, which benefits from the fall in global oil prices.

Rising domestic electricity costs and unstable supply in 2015 has impacted the smelting operations of both open cast and underground mines. It should be noted that the older, more vulnerable, and (currently) marginally profitable underground mines of the old Copperbelt offer greater potential for utilizing mining sector procurement expenditure to deepen domestic manufacturing (First Quantum Minerals 2015; Vendanta Resources 2015). Zambian economy depended so much in copper which didn’t show many results in the economical performance of our country. The biggest reason why copper didn’t perform well in the economy its because of lack of advanced technology to process our copper in to finished goods which can be exported at the international market and sell at a good price and in retune contribute to the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and benefit the people through employment which could have created in copper industry processing. But that is not the case in our country, up to today we are still exporting row materials and earn anything from it and allowing the so called inverters to exploit us and earn more. All this is because of luck of technology which as a country we are still lucking behind.

If only the government can inverts seriously in technology development many industries can come up and more employment can be created and poverty can be reduced. Promotion of industries can only be seen if technological policies are taken serious by the implementers and the government itself. In the health sector we have seen a lot of improvement in terms of technology in service delivery even thou it is not enough to ensure that research priorities are geared to generating information intended to solve health and nutritional problems, to ensure research capabilities and capacities of institutions carrying out health research are strengthened. Relate the research programmes to the priority problems in the health sector.

Establish effective linkages between research institutions on one hand, and users on the other and establish an effective health data bank for research results and mechanisms for their utilization. All this can only be achieved through technology and research development.Economic historians have reviewed the experience of resource-rich countries and concluded that technology, skills, knowledge, and policies are instrumental in the success of resource-based industrialization. Indeed, these factors have enabled the expansion of the natural resource sector, by improving resource discovery, resource extraction, and resource processing technologies and processes, as well as moved the countries into new industries related to the resource sector.A major contributing factor to the poor performance of the industry has been the lack of application of science and technology, which has resulted in industries becoming uncompetitive with declining productivity under global trade environment.In view of the above, the Government has realized that a sustainable socio-economic development can only be achieved through a strong well co-ordinate and monitored Technology System.

Hence, the government decided to formulate a National Technology Policy to be in charge of technology promotion in the country.These new products and processes demonstrate the power of technology and significant technological capabilities of scientists and engineers and the potential of such groups to contribute to economic and industrial development particularly in creating jobs for small scale farmers, transporters and manufacturers.Unfortunately, very few of these products and processes have been successfully transferred for commercial exploitation. The lesson to learn is that Technology is not just to support research and development but more about fostering linkages between researches, manufacturing and marketing strategies through well co-ordinated institutional arrangements and promoting culture for realization of the benefits of Technology.For Technology to be relevant and appreciated in Zambia, policies should focus on the development of the key sectors that contribute to national development and creation of wealth.

In view of the above, the Government of the Republic of Zambia has realized that a sustainable social-economic development can only be achieved through a strong, well co-ordinated and monitored Science and Technology System. Ensure the public sector research institutes conduct predominantly demand-driven and client-oriented research and development work. This should be driven by the needs of the key sectors and geared towards ensuring competitiveness, efficiency and innovation of commercial products. Ensure interaction with existing industries, especially small and medium scale ones to assist with process technology selection and product design. Strive to promote industrial private sector research and development especially in larger companies where it is cost effective.

Create incentives in the form of tax allowances and rebates that will promote active participation in research and development by the public sector. Restructure and rationalize existing laboratories in the public sectors into autonomous research institutes under the auspices of the Technology Council. Establish a mechanism for access to technology in the public domain to take advantage of utilizing technologies which have not been patented and whose industrial property rights have expired. Establish a national Petty Patent System for locally developed intermediate technologies.

Provide up-to-date and efficient scientific information system involving libraries, documentation centre, computer systems etc as vital tools and components in strengthening the country’s capability to transfer technology and commercialize technological innovations. Develop research and training and capacity building in new and emerging technologies.Conclusion Technological policy are today more important than ever for Zambia, if it is to raise the standards of living of the people, consolidate a modern economy and participates as a significant partner in the global arena. This implies that the economy must be modernized and be competitive.

In this regards, the Zambian government must heavy inverts in technology to promote industrialization in Zambia to contribute to economic and industrial development particularly in creating jobs for small scale farmers, transporters and manufacturers. Apart Zambia should set the Strategies for the policy by involve both Government and the private sector, working to complement each other, to ensure that Zambia provides and sharpens technical skills required in the promotion of competitiveness of the key sectors, and takes advantages of the vast natural resources potential for harnessing further the industrialization process, through, among othersReferences National Science and Technology Policy (1996) Animalu, A. O.E (2003). “Hot Issues in Contemporary Nigerian Science and Technology Policy.” A Paper Presented at the 16th Anniversary of the “Scientific Revival Day for Africa” organized by the African Technology Policy Studies (ATPS) Network, Abuja, Nigeria pg.

8-15. Bamiro, O. A (2004). “Technology Transfer and the Development of National Technological Capacity: The Case of Nigeria Liquefied National Gas (LNG) Project”. A paper presented at ATPS/RMRDC Training Workshop on Science Writing for Science Writers, Abuja Nigeria pg.1-23.


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